Monday, December 21, 2009



Functions: As a constituent of coenzyme A, pantothenic acid is essential to several reactions in metabolism. An example is the combination of coenzyme A with acetate to form acetyl-coenzyme A [active acetate] participate in a number of metabolic processes. Coenzyme A has also an essential function in lipid metabolism. Activation of some amino acids may also involve coenzyme A. The important function for this vitamin in metabolism, involving as it does the utilization of carbohydrate, fat and protein with various acetylation reactions.
Effects of deficiency: Dermatitis, vomiting, enteritis, alopecia [bald of hair], and muscle cramps, postural hypotension, tachycardia and “burning feed syndrome”. Treatment: Pantothenic acid 20-100 mg/day.
Effects of excess: No toxic effects reported.
Requirements: Recommended Daily Amount [RDA] 6 mg.
Sources: Eggs, liver, yeast, lean meats, whole grain, vegetables and fruits.


Functions: Form prosthetic group of certain decarboxylaces and transaminaces .Converted in the body into pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate. Helps build body tissue and aids in metabolism of protein.
Effects of deficiency: Convulsions, hyperirritability, muscular weakness, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, acne and other dermatologic disorder. Treatment: pyridoxine 100 mg/day or in combination with vitamin B1 and B12 such as neurobion tablet which contains: vitamin B1 100 mg, B6 200 mg and B12 200 micro-grams/tablet. Treatment: Neurobion twice one tablet daily, or administration of pyridoxine twice 200 mg daily..
Effects of excess: Long term mega-doses may cause nerve damage in hands and feet.
Requirements: RDA 2.0 mg
Sources: Fish, poultry, lean meats, banana, dried beans, whole grains, avocados.


Functions: Involved in metabolism of protein, fats and carbohydrates.
Effects of deficiency: Nausea, vomiting, depression, alopecia [hair loss or bald of hair], and dermatitis. Treatment: 1-2 mg vitamin B7 daily.
Effects of excess: No toxic effects reported.
Requirements: RDA 150 micro-grams.
Sources: Liver, legume, yeast and whole grain products.


Functions: Involved in red blood cells formation, aids in genetic material development or reproduction, important metabolic process in the body, growth.
Effects of deficiency: Sprue [absorption from and motility of the small intestine are impaired], gastrointestinal disorders, anemia particularly in premature infants and pregnant women, cracks on lips. Treatment: The average dose is 5-10 mg per day, produces a prompt hemopoietic [producing red blood and white blood cells] response which is parallel by striking clinical response.
Effects on excess: mild symptoms in large doses.
Requirements: RDA For Nutritional Labeling of Food Products 200 micro-grams.
Sources: Green leafy vegetables, beans, dried peas, and lentils.


Functions: Nervous system function, normal development of red blood cells, aids in cell development, and the metabolism of protein and fat.
Effects of deficiency: Pernicious anemia, nervousness, fatigue, neuritis and in some cases brain degeneration. Treatment: Intramuscular injection 1000 micro-grams daily continuing until deficiency relief. Neurobion tablet twice daily.
Effects of excess: No toxic effect reported.
Requirements: RDA 3 micro-grams.
Sources: liver, meats, sea-foods and milk products


Functions: Essential for matrix structure of bones, cartilage, muscle and blood vessels , dentin, collagen of fibrous tissue structure, helps maintain capillaries and gums structure. Act as antioxidant in cell metabolism. Play a role in endowing the organism with increased powers of resistance. Aids in absorption of iron.

Effects of deficiency: Mild symptoms include apathy, anorexia, fatigability and loss of strength; in more severe cases there is tenderness of extremities and gums with hemorrhage tendency. Scurvy: Bleeding and swollen of gums, the teeth become loose and fragile. Slow wound healing, subcutaneous hemorrhage occur upon slight injury. Hemorrhage is predominating feature of the disease, and when it occurs internally it is frequently the cause of death. Treatment: Per oral 1000 mg/tablet twice daily after meal. In severe cases intramuscular injection solution of 1-2 % vitamin C, 5 ml twice daily for weeks.
Effects of excess: Vitamin C has a brief, pronounced laxative effect when taken in large amounts, typically n the range of 5-20 grams per day in divided doses for a person in normal “good health”, although seriously ill people, may take 100-200 grams without inducing vitamin poisoning.
Requirements: RDA for Nutritional Labeling of Food Products 60 mg.
Sources: Citrus fruits, berries, and vegetables-especially potatoes and peppers.

Friday, December 18, 2009



by function, effects of deficiency, effects of excess, requirements and sources.

Water soluble vitamins usually be used by the body right away. If the concentration in the blood are higher, those vitamins will be excreted through the urine. Vitamin B12 is the water soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver. Water soluble vitamins consist of vitamins B-Complex and vitamin C:

VITAMIN B1 [Thiamine]

Functions: Use for carbohydrate metabolisms, digestion, normal function of striated muscles, cardiac muscle and nervous systems.
Effects of deficiency: Lost of strength of the quadriceps muscle; loss of vibration sense: first of the toes and later of the malleoli [ankle] and tibias. Tenderness of the calves and hyperesthesia of the feet. Diminution and loss of the Achilles tendon and patellar reflexes first, in the stage of polyneuritis of “dry beriberi". Edema of the shins, ankles and knee joints, found in “wet beriberi”. Enlarged heart with dependent edema and elevated venous pressures: poor response to rest and administration of digitalis unless thiamine is given. This is the late manifestation of severe deficiency [beriberi heart]. Treatment: 50 mg twice daily until relief of symptoms.
Effects of excess: No case reported, high doses are excreted by the kidney.
Requirements: 1.5 mg per day.
Sources: Liver, whole grains, unrefined cereal grains, yeast.


Functions: Constituent of flavor-proteins, helps body release energy from protein, carbohydrates and fat metabolism.

Figure 1: Photophobia,epiphora and scleral injection in riboflavin deficiency.
Source: Cecil & Loeb. A TEXTBOOK OF MEDICINE. W.B.Saunders
Company,Philadelphia,USA,1959,p 548.
Effects of deficiency: Photophobia, epiphora and scleral injection. Cheilitis: Excessive and irregular wrinkling of the lips. Angular stomatitis, various combinations of erythema [redness] and open fissuring in the angles of the mouth .Magenta tongue: A purplish red coloring with moderate edema and flattening of fili-form papillae. Treatment: 5 mg three times daily for weeks.
Effects of excess: No toxic effects reported.
Requirements: 1.6 mg daily.
Sources: Liver, milk, whole grains, eggs, yeast and green leafy vegetables.

Fig. 2: Cheilitis and photophobia in riboflafin deficiency.
Source: Ibid.


Functions: As a constituent of coenzyme for carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. It is also has cholesterol lowering effects.

Fig. 3: Glossitis of nicotinic acid deficiency
Source: Opcit

Effects of deficiency: Glossitis: edema of the tongue, shown by dental indentation. Increase redness of the tongue: Scarlet red in severe acute deficiency, beefy red in chronic states. Congestion and hypertrophy of papillae of the tongue, followed by fusion and atrophy.

Pellagrous dermatitis: Erythema [redness], rough scaling with ulceration and formation of bullae [ bag of plasma], affecting primarily areas of the skin exposed to light; namely wrists, calf, ankles, neck and face; observed in severe deficiency [pellagra[, and frequently associated with diarrhea and dementia. Treatment: Acute deficiency state: 100 mg niacin-amide twice daily for weeks, chronic state: 100 mg of niacin-amide twice daily over a prolonged period.
Effects of excess: No case reported
Requirements: 20 mg daily
Sources: Meat, dairy products, poultry eggs, peanuts, fish.

Fig. 4: Pellagrous dermatitis of hands in nicotinic acid
Source: Opcit.