Monday, December 21, 2009



Functions: As a constituent of coenzyme A, pantothenic acid is essential to several reactions in metabolism. An example is the combination of coenzyme A with acetate to form acetyl-coenzyme A [active acetate] participate in a number of metabolic processes. Coenzyme A has also an essential function in lipid metabolism. Activation of some amino acids may also involve coenzyme A. The important function for this vitamin in metabolism, involving as it does the utilization of carbohydrate, fat and protein with various acetylation reactions.
Effects of deficiency: Dermatitis, vomiting, enteritis, alopecia [bald of hair], and muscle cramps, postural hypotension, tachycardia and “burning feed syndrome”. Treatment: Pantothenic acid 20-100 mg/day.
Effects of excess: No toxic effects reported.
Requirements: Recommended Daily Amount [RDA] 6 mg.
Sources: Eggs, liver, yeast, lean meats, whole grain, vegetables and fruits.


Functions: Form prosthetic group of certain decarboxylaces and transaminaces .Converted in the body into pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate. Helps build body tissue and aids in metabolism of protein.
Effects of deficiency: Convulsions, hyperirritability, muscular weakness, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, acne and other dermatologic disorder. Treatment: pyridoxine 100 mg/day or in combination with vitamin B1 and B12 such as neurobion tablet which contains: vitamin B1 100 mg, B6 200 mg and B12 200 micro-grams/tablet. Treatment: Neurobion twice one tablet daily, or administration of pyridoxine twice 200 mg daily..
Effects of excess: Long term mega-doses may cause nerve damage in hands and feet.
Requirements: RDA 2.0 mg
Sources: Fish, poultry, lean meats, banana, dried beans, whole grains, avocados.


Functions: Involved in metabolism of protein, fats and carbohydrates.
Effects of deficiency: Nausea, vomiting, depression, alopecia [hair loss or bald of hair], and dermatitis. Treatment: 1-2 mg vitamin B7 daily.
Effects of excess: No toxic effects reported.
Requirements: RDA 150 micro-grams.
Sources: Liver, legume, yeast and whole grain products.


Functions: Involved in red blood cells formation, aids in genetic material development or reproduction, important metabolic process in the body, growth.
Effects of deficiency: Sprue [absorption from and motility of the small intestine are impaired], gastrointestinal disorders, anemia particularly in premature infants and pregnant women, cracks on lips. Treatment: The average dose is 5-10 mg per day, produces a prompt hemopoietic [producing red blood and white blood cells] response which is parallel by striking clinical response.
Effects on excess: mild symptoms in large doses.
Requirements: RDA For Nutritional Labeling of Food Products 200 micro-grams.
Sources: Green leafy vegetables, beans, dried peas, and lentils.


Functions: Nervous system function, normal development of red blood cells, aids in cell development, and the metabolism of protein and fat.
Effects of deficiency: Pernicious anemia, nervousness, fatigue, neuritis and in some cases brain degeneration. Treatment: Intramuscular injection 1000 micro-grams daily continuing until deficiency relief. Neurobion tablet twice daily.
Effects of excess: No toxic effect reported.
Requirements: RDA 3 micro-grams.
Sources: liver, meats, sea-foods and milk products


Functions: Essential for matrix structure of bones, cartilage, muscle and blood vessels , dentin, collagen of fibrous tissue structure, helps maintain capillaries and gums structure. Act as antioxidant in cell metabolism. Play a role in endowing the organism with increased powers of resistance. Aids in absorption of iron.

Effects of deficiency: Mild symptoms include apathy, anorexia, fatigability and loss of strength; in more severe cases there is tenderness of extremities and gums with hemorrhage tendency. Scurvy: Bleeding and swollen of gums, the teeth become loose and fragile. Slow wound healing, subcutaneous hemorrhage occur upon slight injury. Hemorrhage is predominating feature of the disease, and when it occurs internally it is frequently the cause of death. Treatment: Per oral 1000 mg/tablet twice daily after meal. In severe cases intramuscular injection solution of 1-2 % vitamin C, 5 ml twice daily for weeks.
Effects of excess: Vitamin C has a brief, pronounced laxative effect when taken in large amounts, typically n the range of 5-20 grams per day in divided doses for a person in normal “good health”, although seriously ill people, may take 100-200 grams without inducing vitamin poisoning.
Requirements: RDA for Nutritional Labeling of Food Products 60 mg.
Sources: Citrus fruits, berries, and vegetables-especially potatoes and peppers.

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