Monday, December 21, 2009



Functions: As a constituent of coenzyme A, pantothenic acid is essential to several reactions in metabolism. An example is the combination of coenzyme A with acetate to form acetyl-coenzyme A [active acetate] participate in a number of metabolic processes. Coenzyme A has also an essential function in lipid metabolism. Activation of some amino acids may also involve coenzyme A. The important function for this vitamin in metabolism, involving as it does the utilization of carbohydrate, fat and protein with various acetylation reactions.
Effects of deficiency: Dermatitis, vomiting, enteritis, alopecia [bald of hair], and muscle cramps, postural hypotension, tachycardia and “burning feed syndrome”. Treatment: Pantothenic acid 20-100 mg/day.
Effects of excess: No toxic effects reported.
Requirements: Recommended Daily Amount [RDA] 6 mg.
Sources: Eggs, liver, yeast, lean meats, whole grain, vegetables and fruits.


Functions: Form prosthetic group of certain decarboxylaces and transaminaces .Converted in the body into pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate. Helps build body tissue and aids in metabolism of protein.
Effects of deficiency: Convulsions, hyperirritability, muscular weakness, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, acne and other dermatologic disorder. Treatment: pyridoxine 100 mg/day or in combination with vitamin B1 and B12 such as neurobion tablet which contains: vitamin B1 100 mg, B6 200 mg and B12 200 micro-grams/tablet. Treatment: Neurobion twice one tablet daily, or administration of pyridoxine twice 200 mg daily..
Effects of excess: Long term mega-doses may cause nerve damage in hands and feet.
Requirements: RDA 2.0 mg
Sources: Fish, poultry, lean meats, banana, dried beans, whole grains, avocados.


Functions: Involved in metabolism of protein, fats and carbohydrates.
Effects of deficiency: Nausea, vomiting, depression, alopecia [hair loss or bald of hair], and dermatitis. Treatment: 1-2 mg vitamin B7 daily.
Effects of excess: No toxic effects reported.
Requirements: RDA 150 micro-grams.
Sources: Liver, legume, yeast and whole grain products.


Functions: Involved in red blood cells formation, aids in genetic material development or reproduction, important metabolic process in the body, growth.
Effects of deficiency: Sprue [absorption from and motility of the small intestine are impaired], gastrointestinal disorders, anemia particularly in premature infants and pregnant women, cracks on lips. Treatment: The average dose is 5-10 mg per day, produces a prompt hemopoietic [producing red blood and white blood cells] response which is parallel by striking clinical response.
Effects on excess: mild symptoms in large doses.
Requirements: RDA For Nutritional Labeling of Food Products 200 micro-grams.
Sources: Green leafy vegetables, beans, dried peas, and lentils.


Functions: Nervous system function, normal development of red blood cells, aids in cell development, and the metabolism of protein and fat.
Effects of deficiency: Pernicious anemia, nervousness, fatigue, neuritis and in some cases brain degeneration. Treatment: Intramuscular injection 1000 micro-grams daily continuing until deficiency relief. Neurobion tablet twice daily.
Effects of excess: No toxic effect reported.
Requirements: RDA 3 micro-grams.
Sources: liver, meats, sea-foods and milk products


Functions: Essential for matrix structure of bones, cartilage, muscle and blood vessels , dentin, collagen of fibrous tissue structure, helps maintain capillaries and gums structure. Act as antioxidant in cell metabolism. Play a role in endowing the organism with increased powers of resistance. Aids in absorption of iron.

Effects of deficiency: Mild symptoms include apathy, anorexia, fatigability and loss of strength; in more severe cases there is tenderness of extremities and gums with hemorrhage tendency. Scurvy: Bleeding and swollen of gums, the teeth become loose and fragile. Slow wound healing, subcutaneous hemorrhage occur upon slight injury. Hemorrhage is predominating feature of the disease, and when it occurs internally it is frequently the cause of death. Treatment: Per oral 1000 mg/tablet twice daily after meal. In severe cases intramuscular injection solution of 1-2 % vitamin C, 5 ml twice daily for weeks.
Effects of excess: Vitamin C has a brief, pronounced laxative effect when taken in large amounts, typically n the range of 5-20 grams per day in divided doses for a person in normal “good health”, although seriously ill people, may take 100-200 grams without inducing vitamin poisoning.
Requirements: RDA for Nutritional Labeling of Food Products 60 mg.
Sources: Citrus fruits, berries, and vegetables-especially potatoes and peppers.

Friday, December 18, 2009



by function, effects of deficiency, effects of excess, requirements and sources.

Water soluble vitamins usually be used by the body right away. If the concentration in the blood are higher, those vitamins will be excreted through the urine. Vitamin B12 is the water soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver. Water soluble vitamins consist of vitamins B-Complex and vitamin C:

VITAMIN B1 [Thiamine]

Functions: Use for carbohydrate metabolisms, digestion, normal function of striated muscles, cardiac muscle and nervous systems.
Effects of deficiency: Lost of strength of the quadriceps muscle; loss of vibration sense: first of the toes and later of the malleoli [ankle] and tibias. Tenderness of the calves and hyperesthesia of the feet. Diminution and loss of the Achilles tendon and patellar reflexes first, in the stage of polyneuritis of “dry beriberi". Edema of the shins, ankles and knee joints, found in “wet beriberi”. Enlarged heart with dependent edema and elevated venous pressures: poor response to rest and administration of digitalis unless thiamine is given. This is the late manifestation of severe deficiency [beriberi heart]. Treatment: 50 mg twice daily until relief of symptoms.
Effects of excess: No case reported, high doses are excreted by the kidney.
Requirements: 1.5 mg per day.
Sources: Liver, whole grains, unrefined cereal grains, yeast.


Functions: Constituent of flavor-proteins, helps body release energy from protein, carbohydrates and fat metabolism.

Figure 1: Photophobia,epiphora and scleral injection in riboflavin deficiency.
Source: Cecil & Loeb. A TEXTBOOK OF MEDICINE. W.B.Saunders
Company,Philadelphia,USA,1959,p 548.
Effects of deficiency: Photophobia, epiphora and scleral injection. Cheilitis: Excessive and irregular wrinkling of the lips. Angular stomatitis, various combinations of erythema [redness] and open fissuring in the angles of the mouth .Magenta tongue: A purplish red coloring with moderate edema and flattening of fili-form papillae. Treatment: 5 mg three times daily for weeks.
Effects of excess: No toxic effects reported.
Requirements: 1.6 mg daily.
Sources: Liver, milk, whole grains, eggs, yeast and green leafy vegetables.

Fig. 2: Cheilitis and photophobia in riboflafin deficiency.
Source: Ibid.


Functions: As a constituent of coenzyme for carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. It is also has cholesterol lowering effects.

Fig. 3: Glossitis of nicotinic acid deficiency
Source: Opcit

Effects of deficiency: Glossitis: edema of the tongue, shown by dental indentation. Increase redness of the tongue: Scarlet red in severe acute deficiency, beefy red in chronic states. Congestion and hypertrophy of papillae of the tongue, followed by fusion and atrophy.

Pellagrous dermatitis: Erythema [redness], rough scaling with ulceration and formation of bullae [ bag of plasma], affecting primarily areas of the skin exposed to light; namely wrists, calf, ankles, neck and face; observed in severe deficiency [pellagra[, and frequently associated with diarrhea and dementia. Treatment: Acute deficiency state: 100 mg niacin-amide twice daily for weeks, chronic state: 100 mg of niacin-amide twice daily over a prolonged period.
Effects of excess: No case reported
Requirements: 20 mg daily
Sources: Meat, dairy products, poultry eggs, peanuts, fish.

Fig. 4: Pellagrous dermatitis of hands in nicotinic acid
Source: Opcit.


Sunday, November 29, 2009



Vitamins were discovered when it was observed that diets adequate in calories, protein and essential amino acids, fats and minerals failed to maintain health. The term vitamin has now come to refer to any organic dietary constituent necessary for life, health and growth, which does not function by supplying energy.
Early studies of the vitamins emphasized the more obvious pathological changes which occurred when animals were maintained on vitamin-deficient diets. Increased knowledge of the physiologic role of vitamin has enabled attention to be concentrated on the metabolic defects which occur when these substances are lacking, and we may therefore refer to the biochemical changes as well as the anatomic lesions which are characteristic of the various vitamin deficiency states.
Before the chemical structures of the vitamins were known it was customary to identify these substances by letters of the alphabet. This system gradually being replaced by a nomenclature based on the chemical nature of the compound or a description of its source or function.
The vitamins are generally divided into 2 major groups fat-soluble and water-soluble. The fat-soluble vitamins, which are usually found associated with the lipids of natural foods, include vitamins A, D, E, and K. The vitamins of the B complex and vitamin C comprise the water-soluble group.

THE LIST OF FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS by function, effects of deficiency, effects of excess, requirements and sources or nutrients as follows:

The maintenance of the integrity of epithelial tissues or membranes of respiratory, alimentary, genito-urinary tracts, and in the cornea and conjunctiva are an important function of vitamin A. The specific role of vitamin A in the physiologic normal mechanism of vision. Healthy skin, strong teeth and bones in children, maintaining resistance to infection. It was the identification of vitamins A, C, and E as antioxidants that revolutionized the field and led to the realization of the importance of antioxidants in biochemistry of living organisms.
Effects of deficiency: Xerosis of conjunctiva: Thickening with loss of transparency, infrequently associated with small foam-like plaques called Bitot’s spots. Papular eruptions of pilo-sebaceous follicles: A grater-like feel, which in early stages resembles gooseflesh but, when more fully developed, presents the picture of keratosis pilaris. Xerosis of the skin: Dryness, scale-like and crinkling, In extreme cases resembling alligator skin. Follicular conjunctivitis: Hypertrophy of the follicles, particularly of the lower eyelids. Night blindness. Keratomalacia: Thickening with subsequent ulceration and necrosis of cornea, present only in most severe and advanced of deficiency. Since the lack of vitamin A interferes with the process of ovulation, an adequate dietary supply of vitamin A is necessary for normal process of ovulation and fertility. Treatment: Give vitamin A, 20 000 units twice daily.
Effects of excess: Hypervitaminosis A, this disorder is rare in adults. The minimal toxic adult dose is about 75 000 units daily for 6 months. Clinical findings: Anorexia, loss of weight, hair loss, hyperostosis and periostal elevation of bone, hepato-megaly [enlarged of liver], spleno-megaly [enlarged of spleen], anemia and skin rash. Treatment: Withdraw the medicinal source.
Requirements: The recommended daily allowances [RDA] for adults are 5000 I.U. [or U.S.P. units], during pregnancy and lactation, 6000-8000 I.U.
Sources: It is present in leafy green and yellow fruits and vegetables, whole milk, butter, eggs, fish, or liver oil.

Functions: The vitamins D are sterols formed in the skin by ultraviolet irradiation of plant sterol precursors. Aids in bone and tooth formation. Strong bones; regulation of the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the digestive tract.
Effects of deficiency: Avitaminosis D is usually due to inadequate dietary intake, lack of sunlight, or absorption defect. Clinical findings: Lack of vitamin D leads to osteomalacia in children [rickets]. In adults: osteomalacia due to calcium loss from bones. Treatment of rickets in children is 3500 units daily are adequate. Adult osteomalacia treatment usual doses is 50 000-100 000 units daily, large doses are necessary to compensate renal loses of phosphate.
Effects of excess: This hypervitaminosis D is usually caused by prolonged ingestion of more than 100 000 units daily. Clinical findings: The manifestations of hyper-calcemia are present and may progress to renal damaged and metastatic calcification. Treatment: Withdraw the medicinal source. Complete recovery will occur if over-treatment is discontinued in time.
Requirements: For children and for women during pregnancy and lactation, 400 units are recommended. The daily allowances for adults are not known.
Sources: Cod liver oil, sardines, herring, salmon, tuna, milk and milk products, liver and eggs. The action of sunlight on the skin allows our body to manufacture vitamin D.

: The most striking characteristic of the vitamin E is their antioxidant property. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are easily attacked by molecular oxygen, resulting in formation of peroxides, the tocopherols prevent this. Normal brain function, formation of red blood cells, maintaining some enzyme, normal cellular structure, protection against pollutants.
Effects of deficiency: Weak muscles and infertility. Heart muscle is affected like skeletal muscle by vitamin E deficiency. In male shows testicular atrophy and may failure of spermatogenesis. In female, ovarian function is normal, but there is partial failure of implantation, and the fertilized ova successfully implanted grow and develop only to a certain stage, at which time the fetuses show generalized hemorrhage, die, and are aborted or resolved. Administration of vitamin E during the first half of gestation permits normal fetal development and parturition. The normal resistance of red blood cells to rupture is reduced in vitamin E deficiency. The dietary liver necrosis is the result of simultaneous lack of selenium and of vitamin E. A lack of one or the other alone produces relatively mild chronic diseases. Treatment: Give vitamin E 100 mg twice daily.
Effects of excess: There is a slight risk of overdose, because vitamin E is fat soluble, and usually limited intake of fat.
Requirements: RDA 10 mg daily.
Sources: Eggs, vegetable oils, nuts, soy-beans, broccoli, sprouts, spinach, whole-wheat products.

: The vitamins K are chemical compounds which are necessary for prothrombin synthesis by the liver and so are important in the blood coagulation mechanism.
Effects of deficiency: Avitaminosis K results from liver disease which interferes with synthesis of prothrombin, inadequate bile supply with poor absorption, or ingestion of drugs which depress prothrombin synthesis such as coumarins, salicylates. Bleeding disorders in new born infants and those on blood-thinning medication, Treatment: Give 2-5 mg daily is capable of correcting most deficiency.
Effects of excess: Hypervitaminosis K : Large doses of vitamin K to infants, particularly premature infants, may cause hemolytic anemia, hyper-bilirubinemia, hepatomegaly, and even death. Treatment: Withdraw the medication source.
Requirements: 1-2 mg daily.
Sources: Cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, soybeans, green leafy vegetables, dairy products.

Wednesday, November 11, 2009




No NAME.... a b c d e f g h i j k


1 Calcium......- - + + - - - - - - -

2 Magnesium.- - + + - - - - - - -

3 Potassium...+ - - + - - + - - - -

4 Sodium........- - - - - - - - - + +

5 Phosphorus..- - + + + - - - - - +

6 Sulfur...........- - - + + - - - - - -

7 Chlorine........- - - - - - - - - + +

8 Manganese...- - + + - + - - + - -

9 Iron..............- - + + - - - - - + -

10 Iodine..........- - + + - - - + - - -

Trace minerals..............................

11 Bismuth........- - - + - - + - - - -

12 Boron...........- - - - - - - - - - -

13 Cobalt..........+ - + - - - - + - + +

14 Chromium....- - + - + - - - - - +

15 Copper..........- - + + - - - - - - -

16 Fluorine........- - - - - + - + - - -

17 Germanium...- - - + + - - - - - +

18 Lithium.........- - + + + - + + - - -

19 Molybdenum. - - - - - - - - - - -

20 Nickle..........+ + + - - - - + - + +

21 Selenium......- - + + - + - + - - +

22 Silicon..........- - - - - - - - - - -

23 Tin...............+ - + - - - - - - - +

24 Vanadium....- - + + - - - - - - -

25 Zinc.............+ - + - - - - - + + -


Footnote: Column variables are:

a=Cardiovascular diseases; b=Cancer;

c=Gastrointestinal; d=Central nervous system;

e=Kidney or renal; f=Bone and teeth;

g=Muscle and tendon; h=Endocrine; i=Reproductive;

j=Blood; k=Skin,hair and nail.

Positive + sign=there is effect; negative - sign=no effect

Comment on the list of Excess of minerals on group of diseases:
There are a few excess minerals effect on cardiovascular diseases as follows:
a. Potassium: Abnormal heart beat
b. Cobalt: It may damage the heart muscle.
c. Nickel: Lower pulse rate, heart failure if very high intake [from
50 000 to 100 000 times daily intake].
d. Tin: Palpitations.
e. Zinc: May produce atherosclerosis.

There is only one minerals excess effects for cancer that is
Nickel: Cancer of the sinuses, throat and lung when insoluble nickel compounds are inhaled for long period of time.

The main effects of excess or toxic of minerals are on the gastrointestinal, they are: Calcium, potassium, phosphor, sulfur, manganese, iron, iodine, cobalt, chromium, copper, lithium, nickel, selenium, tin, vanadium and zinc.
The second main effects of excess or toxic of minerals are on the central nervous system, they are: Calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, iron, iodine, bismuth, copper, germanium, lithium, selenium, and vanadium.

Thursday, October 22, 2009


No Name.........A B C D E F G H I J K
I. Macro-minerals.........................
1. Calcium........- - - + - + + - - + -
2. Magnesium..+ - - + + - + + - + -
3. Potassium....+ - + + - - + - - + -
4. Sodium.........- - + + + + + - - + -
5. Phosphorus...- - + + - + + - - - -
6. Sulfur...........+ - - + + - - + + + -
7. Chlorine........- - + - - - + - - - +
8. Manganese....- - - + - + + + - - +
9. Iron...............- - - - - - - - - + -
10. Iodine..........+ - - + - - - + - - +
II. Trace-minerals...................
11. Bismuth........+ - + - - + - - - - -
12. Boron............- - - - - + - + ++ -
13. Cobalt...........- - + + - - + - - + -
14. Chromium....- - - + - - - + - + -
15. Copper..........- - - - - - - - - + -
16. Fluorine........- - - - - + - - - - -
17. Germanium..+ + - - - + - - - + -
18. Lithium........+ - + ++ - - + - - -
19. Molybdenum+ - + - - - - - + - -
20. Nickel..........+ - + + - - - + + ++
21. Selenium......+ + - - - - + - + - -
22. Silicon..........- - - - - + - - - - +
23. Tin...............+ - - + - - - + - - -
24. Vanadium.....- - - - + - - + + - -
25 . Zinc..............- - - - - - - - - - +
Footnote: The name group of diseases by column variable
and label: A=Cardiovascular; B=Cancer; C=Gastrointestinal;
D=Central nervous system; E=Renal or kidney; F=skeleton
Or bone and teeth; G=muscle; H= Endocrine; I=Reproductive ;
J=Blood; K=Skin, hair and nail.
Sign + =there is effect; - sign= no effect

1. To day the ranking of prevalence of diseases are: First is cardiovascular diseases; second is cancer.
2. There are few minerals deficiency effect the cardiovascular diseases: Magnesium, potassium, sulfur, iodine, bismuth, germanium, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and tin.
3. There are 2 minerals deficiency positive effect increase risk of the cancer: Germanium and selenium.
4. These information as inputs for preventive and treatment of the cardiovascular and cancer diseases.
5. The other diseases which are effected by minerals deficiency look at the above table.
6. The effects deficiency of minerals for cardiovascular diseases as follows:
I Macro-minerals:
a. Magnesium: coronary heart disease, formation of clots in the heart.
b. Potassium: cardiac irregularities, slow irregular heart beat.
c. Sulfur: lowering heart beat and power.
II Trace minerals:
d. Bismuth: heartburn.
e. Germanium: atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases.
f. Lithium: heartburn
g. Nickel: specifically affects the left coronary artery, resulting in vasodilatation with low level and vasoconstriction with high level
h. Selenium: Heart attack.
i. Tin: low cardiac output [left].

There are 3 essential minerals deficiency most dangerous to cardiovascular diseases as follows:
1.Magnesium: Coronary heart diseases, formation of clots in the heart.
2.Germanium: Atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases.
3.Selenium: Heart attack

Tuesday, October 20, 2009


No Minerals….Requirements Excess
I Macro-min... ………………. ……….......
1 Calcium ….. ..…1000.00..... 2000.00
2 Magnesium.. ... 400.00...... 1000.00
3 Potassium…. ..2000.00..... 5000.00
4 Sodium……. … 1100.00..... 6000.00
5 Phosphorus... …800.00..... 1500.00
6 Sulfur……... … 1000.00 .……….
7 Chlorine…... …3000.00 .……….
8 Copper……. ….......2.00 …......15.00
9 Manganese...….....5.00 .........30.00
10 Iron……….. …….10.00 .......300.00
11 Iodine……... ….… 0.20 ...........2.00
II Trace min…. ………………... .……….
12 Bismuth…… …....0.03 …....525.00
13 Boron……... ..….20.00 .……….
14 Cobalt…….. ……..0.004 .…....0.025
15 Chromium… ……0.20 .….......1.00
16 Fluorine…… …….4.00 ......500.00
17 Germanium.. …..2.00.... 1000.00
18 Lithium…… …….0.10 ......1500.00
19 Molybdenum …..0.05 …......10.00
20 Nickel…….. ……..0.70 ….....50.00
21 Selenium….. …….0.07 ….......0.75
22 Silicon…….. ……..5.00 …...350.00
23 Tin………… …....20.00 …...250.00
24 Vanadium…. .....0.10 …....100.00
25 Zinc……….. …...20.00 ….....75.00

Foot note: Macro-min= Macro-minerals;
Trace-min= Trace-minerals
Excess of sulfur, Chlorine and Boron are not available.

Thursday, October 8, 2009



: A mineral associated with antioxidant properties and fat metabolism. It is an antioxidant that works closely with vitamin E in actions like production of antibodies, binding of toxic metals like mercury, amino acid metabolism and promotion of normal body growth and fertility. Selenium protects the cell “machinery” that generates energy. It is also necessary for the production of prostaglandins, substances which affect blood pressure and platelet aggregation. It protects membranes, reduce risk of cancer, enhances immune system, protects against heart disease.
Effects of deficiency: It is associated with premature aging, heart attack, muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, infertility and increased risk of cancer.
Effects of excess: More than 750 micrograms; Diabetes, garlic breath odor, immune impairment, loss of hair and nails, irritability, skin lesions, tooth decay, nausea, weakness, yellowish skin.
Requirements: 0.07 mg [70 micrograms]/day.
Sources: Sea-foods and organ meats

: It is needed for the bone and connective tissues of the body such as tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, nails, skin and hair. It works with calcium to make strong bones so it is an important factor in osteoporosis and can help with faster mending of broken bones. It has been found helpful for preventing cardiovascular disease. It is probably best known as the “beauty mineral” for helping maintain strong, healthy nails, hair and skin.
Effects of deficiency: Silicon deficiency first shows as brittle or easily broken nails and dry, and can finally lead to structural abnormality of the long bones and the skull.
Effects of excess: No case have been reported.
Requirements: 2-5 mg/day
Sources: Unrefined grains of high fiber contents and cereal products.

Tin [Sn]
: Tin is associated with iodine; tin supports the adrenals, and iodine supports the thyroid, with both subsequently affecting cardiac output: Tin + adrenals control the left side, and iodine + thyroid control the right side.
Positive health effects were numerous and included improvements with some forms of depression and fatigue, and a general increase in energy, well-being and mood. There were also benefits with certain types of headaches, insomnia, asthma, or improvements with digestion, skin, or various aches and pains.
Effects of deficiency: Fatigue, depression, low cardiac output [left], low adrenals, shortness of breath, asthma, headaches, insomnia. In animals, low tin results in poor growth, alopecia/bilateral hair loss, hearing loss and reduced feeding efficiency.
Effects of excess: Skin rash, stomach complaints, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, palpitations.
Requirements: Daily requirement intake [DRI] : none, suggested 10-20 mg daily. Therapeutic Range: 25-250 mg..
Sources: Tin / canned foods, cereal grains, dairy, meat, vegetables, seaweed, licorice, some toothpastes.

Vanadium [V]
: Vanadium is required for glucose tolerance factor, for proper development of bones, cartilage and teeth and for cellular metabolism.
In human studies, daily insulin requirements in Type I diabetes decreased by as much as 14 % , and in Type II diabetics, there was an increase in insulin sensitivity observed following vanadium treatments using either vanadyl sulfate or sodium metavanadate. According to some sources, supplementing vanadium has the potential to improve athletic performance because of the anabolic effect of vanadyl sulfate being similar to insulin[supposedly resulting in higher liver and muscle glycogen stores], however the validity of that claim is not universally accepted.
Effects of deficiency: It may be linked to reproductive problems and kidney disease; supplementation with vanadium may assist with diabetes.
Effects of excess: It may include anything from various aches and pains and flu-like symptoms , to eventually it causing all kinds of bizarre, chemical imbalance. It can also cause a very noticeable green discoloration of the tongue.
Requirements: Recommended dietary allowance [RDA]: none.
Suggested 100 micrograms. Therapeutic Range : 1-100 mg.
Sources: Vegetable oils, fats, black pepper, seafood.

Zinc [Zn]
: Presence in enzymes, carbonic anhydrase and insulin substantiates its essentialness
Effects of deficiency: Unknown in human; rat show evidence of deficiency by impaired growth with definite changes in the skin and fur.
Effects of excess: Unknown from diet; zinc stearate powder: A severe irritation of the respiratory mucous membranes is produced by aspiration with resulting congestion, hyperemia, edema, and obstruction of bronchioles with mucous. Powder containing zinc stearate should never be used for infants and small children.
If intake 75 mg/day: Gastrointestinal irritation, vomiting, nausea, bleeding in stomach, abdominal pain fever and anemia; premature birth and stillbirth. May produce atherosclerosis.
Requirement: 12-20 mg daily.
Sources: Similar to iron: liver, red meat, egg yolk, legumes, whole grains and dark green vegetables; but more abundant in milk.

Thursday, October 1, 2009



Lithium [Li]
Li is biologically associated on a gastrointestinal and mental health level. Li is better known for its therapeutic properties with manic-depressive/bipolar disorder; Li in regard to potassium/sodium balance.
Effects of deficiency: Gastrointestinal disorders, low stomach acid [lower part of stomach], heartburn, bloating, bipolar/manic-depressive disorder.
Effects of excess: Nausea, vomiting, weight gain, staggering gait, hypothyroidism/goiter, tremors, liver disease, kidney disease, frequent urination, lethargy, diarrhea, slurring speech, edema, death.
Requirements: Estimated daily intake: 30-100 micrograms. Therapeutic range: 50 micro g – 1500 mg
Sources: Some mineral waters, seaweed, sugarcane.

Manganese [Mn]
Function: It is needed for bone development and maintenance of strong bones. It is also important in the utilization of thiamine, helps to activate enzymes that are necessary for the body’s proper use of vitamin B1, C and biotin. It is important in the formation of thyroxine, the principal hormone of the thyroid gland. Helps in the formation of substances that combat infection, for protein build up such as nucleic acid.
Effects of deficiency: Poor bone growth, slowed growth of hair and nails, diabetes, loss of weight, poor muscle coordination, ear noises, memory loss.
Effects of excess: Causes of excess is exposure and inhalation of ore dust. Poor appetite, apathy, depression, weakness, impotence, disturbed sleep, dementia, violence. Parkinsonism [muscular rigidity, tremor, monotone voice, “frozen” mask-like face] .
Requirements: 5 mg /day.
Sources: Green leafy vegetables, beans, whole grains [unpolished], nuts, coffee, tea, egg yolk.

A mineral involved in many enzyme processes, nerve function and protein metabolism. It plays an essential role in several enzymes including xanthine oxidase which is aids in mobilizing iron from liver reserves; aldehyde oxidase which is necessary for oxidation of fats and sulfite oxidase.
Effects of deficiency: Deficiencies can result from excess sulfites [common preservative of foods and drugs] or from refining of foods. Symptoms of deficiency include retarded weight gain, poor appetite, impaired reproduction fast heartbeat, increased rate of breathing, visual problems and shortened life expectancy.
Effects of excess: No case have been reported.
Requirements: Requirement daily intakes [RDI] 45 micro g/day
Sources: milk, beans, breads and cereals.

Nickel is trace mineral that may be thought of in connection to skin allergies or dermatitis from costume jewelry, eyeglass frames or dental material, however of the approximately 10 mg in the body, significant concentrations of nickel are found in RNA [Ribonucleic acid] and DNA [Deoxyribonucleic acid] where interacts with these nucleic acids. Most of plasma nickel is a constituent of the proteins nickeloplasmin and albumin, and it is also thought to be a factor in hormone, lipid and cell membrane metabolism. Insulin response is increased after ingesting nickel, which may be related to its activation of enzymes associated with the breakdown or utilization of glucose.
Effects of deficiency: Ni deficiency results in decreased growth, impaired liver function, changes in skin color and reproductive problems. Hyperglycemia [high blood sugar], depression, liver disease, anemia, low stomach acid, sinus congestion, fatigue, low adrenals.
Nickel and cobalt, both elements share left/right sided cell receptors and are considered essential to human health. Cobalt specifically affects the right coronary artery, resulting in vasodilatation with low level, and vasoconstriction with high levels, while nickel exerts the same effect on the left coronary artery.
The association of Nickel [Ni] to vitamin C deficiency symptoms, for instance, iron deficiency anemia is often found in the presence of low nickel, and it is a well-known fact that vitamin C assist in iron absorption. Both vitamin C and Ni can also be effective with cirrhosis of the liver, hypo-adrenalism, or to improve insulin production. Likewise, pernicious anemia can result from cobalt deficiency, for which vitamin B12 is a well-known treatment, being organically complex with cobalt.
Effects of excess: Ni excess or toxicity is usually not a problem unless several grams are ingested from non-dietary sources, or unless there is a natural tendency to retain too much Ni, which could lead to asthma, angina , skin rush, hypoglycemia [low blood sugar], shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, lowered pulse, increased red blood cells, heart failure [from 50 000-100 000 times the daily intake].However, Ni is quite toxic in its gaseous form of nickel carbonyl, and it has the potential to cause cancer of the sinuses, throat and lungs when insoluble Ni compounds are inhaled for long periods of time, which does not apply to soluble Ni compounds such as chloride, nitrate or sulfate.
Skin reactions such as itching, burning, redness or other rushes are the most symptoms with nickel sensitivity.
Requirements: Dietary Reference Intake [DRI]: 300-700 microgram
Therapeutic Range: 500 micro g-50 mg.
Sources: Unrefined whole grains, nuts, oysters, tea, herring, buckwheat seed, peas, beans, soybeans, lentils.

Saturday, September 26, 2009



Bismuth [ Bi]
: Bismuth is biologically associated on a gastrointestinal and mental health level; bismuth in regard to zinc/phosphorus balance. Bismuth, through its antimicrobial action, is more appropriate for peptic involvement to inhibit helicobacter pylori activity, where it supports an increase in upper stomach acid levels. It is always low in that with an active infection of the helicobacter pylori bacterium, which is responsible for some gastric ulcers.
Effects of deficiency: Gastrointestinal disorders, low stomach acid [upper part of stomach], heartburn, bloating, calcification, warts, diarrhea, gastric ulcers.
Effects of excess: Mental confusion, memory problems, tremors, staggering gait, muscle twitching, slurring speech, joint problems, hearing and visual disturbances, hallucinations, coma.
Requirements: Estimated daily intake: 2-30 micrograms.
Therapeutic Range: 50 micrograms – 525 mg.
Sources: water, foods, cosmetics, stomach remedies.

Boron [B]
: Boron plays a role in cell membrane functions that influence response to hormone action, trans-membrane signaling and trans-membrane movement of regulatory ions. Although the biochemical mechanism of boron is not yet known, it does increase steroid hormones such as the sex hormone and vitamin D. Boron also has a role as a metabolic regulator in several enzyme systems. It is involved in reactive oxygen species mechanisms as well as synthesis of RNA [Ribonucleic acid]. Boron indirectly influences calcium homeostasis, probably through vitamin D metabolism.
Effects of deficiency : Some signs of boron deficiency noted are depressed growth and reduction in steroid hormone concentrations.
Because boron plays a role in bone metabolism, it may be associated with an increased risk for bone loss. An inadequate intake of boron leads to increased excretion of calcium and magnesium, and lower serum concentrations of estrogen and testosterone .
Effects of excess: There have been no reports of adverse reactions in adults taking up to 18 mg of boron daily over prolonged periods. No adverse effects have been observed in pre-menopausal or post-menopausal women using boron supplements.
Requirements: Dietary reference intake: 20 mg/day.
Sources: Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of boron. Other sources are legumes, pulses and nuts

Chromium [Cr]
A mineral important in regulating blood glucose. Although chromium works with insulin to help your body use blood sugar, preliminary studies assessing the effect of chromium in the treatment of diabetes are controversial, and there is no proof chromium can prevent the disease. There’s also no proof of popular claims that taking chromium supplements can increase your muscle mass, help you lose weight, reduce cholesterol and prevent osteoporosis.
Effects of deficiency: Hyperactivity, immune system weakness, low blood sugar [hypoglycemia]
Effects of excess: More than 50 mg/day; dermatitis, intestinal ulcers, kidney and liver impairment.
Requirements: 0.2 mg/day
Sources: Brewer’s yeast, whole grains and meats

Cobalt [Co]
It is required in the production of red blood cells and preventing anemia. Since cobalt is part of the vitamin B12 molecule, the function of cobalt is interwoven with that of vitamin B12.
Effects of deficiency: Pernicious anemia, weakness, fatigue, anorexia and diarrhea.
Effects of excess: Tolerable upper limit 1-2 micrograms; toxic level more than 30 micrograms with symptoms nausea, vomiting diarrhea, skin rushes, hot flushes. It may damage the heart muscle, over production of red blood cells and may damage the thyroid gland. High dose of cobalt interfere with iodine uptake and therefore result in goiter and hypothyroidism.
Requirements: Recommended daily intake [RDI] 0.12 micro gram.
Sources: Liver, red meat, fish, milk, nuts , oysters and leafy green vegetables.

Germanium [Ge]
: The organo-germanium form, bis-carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide [Ge-132], developed by Kazuhiko Asaia of Japan in 1967, is a safe and effective compound that can be used for a variety of medical problems ranging form viral infections to cancer, which require improved oxygenation and immune support.Ge-132 is further known to enhance the immune system by stimulating the production of natural killer cells, interferon, macrophages and T-suppressor cells.
Effects of deficiency: Cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, higher risk for several cancers, osteoporosis, arthritis, weakened immune system, decreased oxygen.
Effects of excess: Bruising, kidney damage, liver damage, skin rush, neuron-toxicity.
Requirements: Estimated daily intake of germanium: 1-2 mg.
Sources: Ginseng, garlic, aloe vera, sushi, watercress, shitake mushroom.

Sunday, September 20, 2009



Function: As a constituent of certain amino acids: in keratin, pigment of epidermal tissues [melanin], bile-acids, mucous secretions and vitreous humor, connective tissue, enzymes, heparin and glutathione; with sugars to form glycol-proteins and with lipids in nervous system.
Effects of deficiency: It may be connected to unstable blood sugar, because sulfur is a part of the insulin molecule.On the physical sign,there may be lowering the heartbeat and power,frequent urination,anemia and irregular menses. Sulfur deficiency imbalanced emotion include excess pride and sensitivity,craving the chocolate,sweets and beer.
Effects of excess: Urinary acidity due to sulfates ; signs of sulfur excess include irritability of nervous system,changeability,depression and slowness in the morning.Excess sulfur,particularly through hydrogen sulfide from eating too many sulfur foods can result in auto-toxity, high sulfur diet such as kale,cabbage,cauliflower,horseradish,Brussel sprouts and water cress. These foods can treat the deficiency of sulfur.
Requirements: Intake of 0.5 to 1 g per day.
Sources: High sulfur diet: kale,cabbage,cauliflower,horseradish,Brussel sprouts, watercress, artichokes,asparagus, avocado,broccoli, carrots, corn, durian,figs,garlic.

: Acid-base equilibrium, osmotic equilibrium, regulate body fluid volume; balanced intertwined with that of sodium.
Effects of deficiency: Deficiency occurs in severe diarrhea, vomiting or excessive sweating. Administration of infuse fluids glucose without saline may produce deficiency, particularly in treatment of burns
Effects of excess: Excessive infuse administration of sodium chloride may lead to edema formation. Not likely under ordinary dietary condition.
Requirements: 2-3 g daily. Greater in pathologic conditions associated with dehydration, acidosis.
Sources: Foods, table salt.

: Structure of hemoglobin , the component of blood which carries oxygen to every cell in the body; myoglobin [muscle globin protein], which supplies oxygen to muscle cells ; a number of enzymes and other iron containing compounds, related to oxidation mechanism.
Effects of deficiency: Anemia [iron deficiency type]: hypochromic [decreased iron content], microcytic [smaller cells than normal cells].
Effects of excess: None from dietary excess. Poisoning by medicinal iron: iron salts [ferrous sulfate] as few as 10 to 15 ferrous sulfate candy coated tablets [5 grains=300 mg]. Symptoms may occur 30 t0 60 minutes after ingestion: acute gastroenteritis, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, collapse, and coma ending in death may occur. A severe acidosis may also be present.
Intake 25 mg/day: Intestinal upset, loss of appetite, interferes with zinc and copper absorption. Toxic build-up in liver, pancreas and heart.
Requirements: Intake recommended from 6 mg daily for infants, 4-6 years 10 mg and to 16 mg for adolescents.
Sources: Meat, eggs, liver, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, legumes, beans, peas.

: Manufacture of thyroxine, which is essential for regulation of energy metabolism which regulates the body’s production of energy and metabolic rate, and is involved in the conversion carotene to vitamin A, in protein synthesis and in synthesis of cholesterol, which is the building block for hormones. .
Effects of deficiency: Simple goiter [enlarged thyroid] and hypothyroidism [which in turn leads to the weight gain, dry skin and hair, sensitivity to cold, sluggish metabolism, slowed mental reactions and hardening of the arteries]; and endemic cretinism.
Effects of excess: Non-clinical-significance in man from dietary foods.
More than 2 mg/day: Thyroid impairment, iodine poisoning or sensitivity reaction. The toxic effects of iodine are due largely to its corrosive action on gastrointestinal tract. Ingestion is followed by reflex vomiting, burning abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Shock may result from fluid loss, and death may occur in one to forty-eight hours.
Requirements: Children, 40-100 micrograms daily; adults, 100-200 micrograms daily.
Sources: Iodized salt.

Related to hardness of bone and teeth, the mayor tissues known to incorporate fluoride are bones and tooth enamel; fluorine appears to increase deposition of calcium, thereby strengthening teeth and bones; possible suppression of bacterial action, especially Bacillus acidophilus in saliva.
Effects of deficiency: Tendency to dental caries.
Effects of excess: Fluoride chronic 5 mg/day: Mottling of teeth, fluorosis [white patches on teeth]; bone abnormalities. Fluoride acute 500 mg/day, poisons several enzymes; 5 000 mg lethal excess.
Requirements: 1.5-4 mg; In drinking water, 0.7 part per million is sufficiently high to prevent dental caries, but low enough to avoid mottling.
Sources: Additional of fluorides salts to communal water.

: Catalyst in hemoglobin formation, certain oxidation-reduction enzymes in tissues.
Effects of deficiency: Occasionally hypochromic anemia.
Effects of excess: 15 mg/daily. Fatigue; poor memory; depression; insomnia; increased production of free radicals; may suppress immune function. Violent vomiting and diarrhea. Cooking acid foods in unlined copper pots lead to toxic accumulation of copper. Dietary foods not harmful.
Requirements: For infant and children the diet should contain about 0.1 mg of copper per kg body weight; adults, 2mg daily.
Sources: Drinking water, mixed diet.


Wednesday, September 16, 2009



The list of the essential minerals or inorganic elements by function, effects of deficiency, effects of excess, requirements and sources as follows:

: Structure of bone and teeth, muscle contraction, nerve cell irritability, coagulation of blood, cardiac action, production of milk.
Effects of deficiency: osteoporosis and osteomalacia [Grossly, it is due to inadequate concentrations of calcium or phosphorus in the body fluids; characterized by a softening of the bones, with the result that incomplete fractures and bending occur much more frequently than do complete fractures], rickets [related to phosphorus loss], tetany [it is a syndrome whose principal manifestations result from a state of increased neuromuscular irritability].
Effects of Excess: More than 2 000 mg/day. Drowsiness; impaired absorption of iron, zinc, and manganese; calcium deposits in tissues throughout body; mimicking cancer on X-ray .Dietary excess not harmful.
Requirements: Related to phosphorus ratio and vitamin D intake and sunshine. Roughly 1.0 g/day
Sources: Milk, milk products, eggs, leafy vegetables, tofu, almonds and broccoli.

Structure of bone, ionic balance [intracellular], enzyme metabolism, regulation of nerve impulses and muscular action.
Effects of deficiency: Deficiencies have been associated with coronary heart disease, formation of clots in the heart and brain, calcium deposits kidney, blood vessels and heart, depression. Low plasma magnesium tetany in rats, dogs, cattle and possibly in human being.
Effects of excess : Diarrhea at large dosages of poorly absorbed forms [like Epsom salts].Disturbed nervous system because the calcium-to-magnesium ratio is unbalanced;catharsis,hazard to persons with poor kidney function.
Requirements: Average consumption 200-400 mg daily.
Sources: Green vegetables, milk, meat, nuts, legumes, whole grains.

Function: Structural protoplasm; regulation of nervous and muscular activity; intracellular action in acid-base equilibrium. In the correct ratio, sodium and potassium help regulate water balance within the body; are essential for the transport of nutrients into each cell and waste products out of each cell and help normalize the heartbeat.
Effects of deficiency: Deficiency only under abnormal conditions, e.g., diarrhea, burns, shock, alkalosis, abdominal distention, weakness, paralysis, cardiac irregularities. Deficiency of potassium may lead to nervous disorders, insomnia, constipation, slow irregular heartbeat and muscle damage. In severe potassium deficiency, muscle weakness and paralysis may develop, leading to difficulties in breathing and changes in the heart.
Effects of excess: High dose: Mental impairment, weakness. Excessive potassium in blood causing muscular paralysis and abnormal heart beat, or heart block
Requirements: 1 to 2 g daily.
Sources: Natural foods, as vegetables, fruits, meat, milk.

: Ionic equilibrium, osmotic pressure, regulate body fluid volume It works with potassium to equalize acid-alkaline balance of the blood and water balance in the body and well as transport of nutrients into and waste products out of body cells, muscle contraction and nerve stimulation [irritability of neuromuscular system], small amount in muscle and cartilage cells. It is necessary for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach for digestion of protein and minerals and helps in the elimination of carbon dioxide from the body.
Effects of deficiency: Dehydration, loss of renal function; muscular cramps
with excessive sweating. Excessive fatigue, muscle cramps and weakness, intestinal gas, arthritis and mental confusion can result from sodium deficiency.
Effects of excess: Edema, if excessive administration of parenteral [infuse] fluids, particularly in premature and small infants with immature renal function.
Requirements: Estimates for daily intake as sodium chloride by infuse routes: infants=1 g; children=3 g; adolescents and adults=6 g.
Sources: foods, table salt; intake 1.1-3.3 g daily.

: Structure of bone, it is essential component of bone mineral and needs to be in correct balance with calcium for both of these minerals to be used effectively in the body; muscle and nerve tissue; absorption of carbohydrates; intermediary mechanisms of muscle activity; absorption of fat; buffer in acid-base equilibrium.
Effects of deficiency: Phosphorus deficiency results in bone loss and is characterized by weakness, anorexia, malaise, and pain. Deficiency in the calcium-phosphorus balance and related with vitamin D may result in conditions such as rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, arthritis, pyorrhea and tooth decay..
Effects of excess: No harmful effects known with adequate renal function and dietary foods..
Red phosphorus is non-absorbable and therefore nonpoisonous. Yellow phosphorus is highly poisonous, producing severe tissue destruction. Yellow or white phosphorus is used in rodent and insect poisons, in fireworks and in the manufacture of fertilizer. Zinc phosphide used in rat poisons releases phosphine on contact with water.
Symptoms of acute poisoning occur within one to two hours. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and a garlic odor of the breath and excreta my be noted. Coma may occur within 24 to 48 hours. If recovery from the acute phase occurs, symptoms may return in one to two days with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, large tender liver, jaundice, shock, oliguria [urine suppression, secreted in a small amount] and multiple hemorrhages. Phosphorus causes second- to third-degree burns on contact with the skin.
High dose: Distortion of calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, creating relative deficiency of calcium.
Requirements: Daily intake of 1.5 g recommended for Calcium: Phosphorus ratio of 1: 1.5.
Sources: Milk, milk products, meat, fish, dairy products, beans, cereal grains

Friday, September 11, 2009



Composition of the human body and approximate relative amounts in the body are as follows:

Table: Composition of Human Body
Elements…...%..........AA, g
Oxygen….....65.0...45, 500.00
Carbon….....18.0... 12, 600.00
Hydrogen....10.0.....7, 000.00
Nitrogen…....3.0..... 2, 100.00
Calcium…......1.5..... 1, 050.00
Phosphorus...1.0........ 700.00
Potassium.... 0.35...... 245.00
Sulfur……..... 0.25 ......175.0000
Sodium…...... 0.15...... 105.00
Chlorine… .....0.15 ......105.00
Magnesium... 0.05....... 35.00
Iron……… ......0.004........3.00
Manganese.... 0.0003 .....0.20
Copper…........0.0002..... 0.10
Iodine……...... 0.00004... 0.03
Footnote: AA, g=Approximate Amount in a 70-Kg.Man, g=grams

Various other elements are also present in traces; these are sometimes called as a group the trace elements such as cobalt, selenium, aluminum, fluorine, lithium, bromine, arsenic lead, molybdenum, vanadium.
The oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen usually named organic elements consist of 96 % of body weight, and other elements is about 4 % consist of calcium, carbon…iodine and trace elements named inorganic elements or minerals.
The minerals are essential because minerals cannot be made in the body and must be obtained in our diet. The daily requirements of minerals required by the body can be obtained from a well balanced diet.
About 90 per cent of the total oxygen of the animal and human body, and about 70 per cent of the total hydrogen are present together in the form of water, which makes up roughly two thirds of the total body weight.

The minerals or the ash content of the adult body is about 4 % of body weight, 83 % of which is in the skeleton and 10 % in the muscle.
The important electro-positive elements are potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium; the electro-negative, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine; the important inorganic complexes iron and iodine.
Next subtopic: List of Essential Minerals by Function...

Tuesday, September 1, 2009



The second problem solving.
What are the effect of nutrition on:

A clear understanding of the fundamentals of nutrition are basics due to the function, adequate requirement, effect of deficiency, effect of excess, and sources of the main component and essential nutrients.
What are the effect of nutrients on health promotion?
The answers are adequate requirement according to the function and sources of nutrients. The requirement of nutrient as long as life time from the embryo, baby, child, adult and aging.

What are the effect of nutrients on health prevention?
The information on the effect of deficiency, the effect of excess and adequate requirements are the basic answer to take action on health prevention.

What are the effect of nutrients on health treatment?
The effect of nutrients on health treatment is either alone for treatment of nutrient deficiency, or excess of nutrients as well as synergy with other medicine, surgical treatment, such as nutrient for infectious diseases for example diet for gastro-intestinal diseases, diet for typhoid diseases; diet for degenerative, diseases such as diet for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart diseases etc; and diet for preoperative and postoperative of surgical treatment per oral or parenteral.

The list of main type component of nutrients by function, effects of deficiency, effects of excess, requirements and sources of nutrients as follows:
1. Proteins:
Function :Supply amino acids for growth and repair of tissue cells; sols for osmotic equilibrium; ions in acid-base balance. With prosthetic groups to form hemoglobin, nucleoproteins, glycoprotein and lipoproteins. Enzymes, hormones, cellular respiratory substance, antibodies. Protective structures [nails and hair]. Source of energy.
Effects of deficiency: Lassitude, abdominal enlargement, edema; depletion of plasma proteins, negative nitrogen balance [no clinical syndrome due to lack of specific amino acid].
Effects of excess :Prolonged high protein intake not harmful. Requirements: Infancy 3 g/kg body weight [BW]…4-6 years 2, 5 g/kg BB…adult 1.0 g/kg BW.
Sources: Milk, eggs, fish, cheese, soy beans, peas, beans, cereals, nuts, lentils.

2. Carbohydrates.
Function: Readily available source of energy [body heat and muscular work], antiketogenic, structure of cells, antibodies, source of stored calories, conversion to fat, re-synthesis of amino acids, roughage.
Effects of deficiency: Ketosis [if protein intake less than 15 % of calories or in starvation]; underweight, if total calories are low.
Effects of excess: Overweight; galactosemia [if unable to metabolize galactose].
Requirements: To supply 25 to 55 % of calories. Sources: Milk, cereals, fruits, sucrose, syrups, starches, vegetables.
3. Fats:
Function: Concentrated reserve energy; physical protection for vessels, nerves, organs; insulation against changes in temperature; structure of body tissues, cell membranes and nuclei; vehicle for absorption of vitamins [A, D, E and K]; stimulates appetite; aids satiety [delays emptying time of stomach]; avoids necessity of ingestion of large bulk of foods; spares protein, vitamins A and B1;supplies essential fatty acids.
Effects of deficiency: Lack of satiety [craving for fat], underweight. Effects of excess: Overweight.
Requirements: Minimal not known, usually supplies 35 % of calories. Perhaps 2-3 % of calories as linoleic acid.
Sources: Milk, butter, egg yolk, lard, bacon, meat, fish, cheese, nuts, vegetable oils
4. Calories:
Function: Energy for basal metabolism [body temperature, muscle tonus, circulation, respiration, peristalsis, glandular function, vegetative function; specific dynamic action of food; growth and physical activity.
Effects of deficiency: Underweight, malnutrition.
Effects of excess: Overweight.
Requirements: Infancy 110 Calories per kg BW…4-6 years 90 Calories/kg BW…Adult 40 Calories/kg BW; varies with body surface [weight and height, and age].
Sources: 4 Calories/g carbohydrate; 4 Calories/g protein; 9 Calories/ g fat.
5. Water:
Function: Structure of cells; matrix for cellular changes; medium for ions; transport for nutrients and waste products; regulation of body temperature.
Effects of deficiency: Thirst, dryness of tongue, dehydration, high specific gravity of urine, loss of kidney function [acidosis, uremia, anuria, death].
Effects of excess: Abdominal discomfort, headache, cramps [water without salt], intoxication, convulsions, edema and circulatory failure.
Requirements: Infancy 150 ml/kg BW…4-6 years 100 ml/kg BW… Adult 50 ml/kg BW; related to calories consumed; greater in hot weather.
Sources: Water as such All foods.

Tuesday, August 25, 2009



What are the problems ?
1.What are the main and essential composition of nutrition on health?
2.What are the effects of nutrition on health promotion, prevention and treatment?
3.What kind and amount of foods that promote, prevent and treat or cure the diseases as health problems?

The answer for those problems as problem solving will be describe as follows :
1.What are the main and essential composition of nutrition on health?
Let us translate it into 3 sub-problems:
· What is the aim of nutrition?
· What are the main compositions of nutrition?
· What is the essential nutrient?

The aim of the science of nutrition is the determination of the kinds and amounts of foods that promote health and well-being. This includes not only the problems of under-nutrition but those of over-nutrition, taste, and availability. How ever, certain substances are essential constituents of any diet.

Essential human requirements usually not considered to be nutrients: oxygen, water and sunlight [for synthesis of vitamin D].
There are 6 main or major components of nutrition: protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and water.
The carbohydrate, fat and protein yield energy provide for growth, and maintain tissue subjected to wear and tear.

Vitamin, mineral and water although they do not yield energy, are essential parts of the chemical mechanism for the utilization of energy and for the synthesis of various necessary metabolites such as hormones and enzymes.
The minerals are also incorporated into the structure of the tissue and, in solution, play an important role in acid-base equilibrium.

The energy aspect of the nutrition or diet.
The energy for physiologic processes is provided by the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein. The daily requirement or daily caloric need is the sum of the basal metabolic rate, specific dynamic action, growth, exercise or work, and unused portion.
Distribution of the calories in the nutrition or diet:

In well balanced diet,
10-15 % of the total is usually derived from protein, 55-70 % from carbohydrate, and 20-30 % from fat. These proportion vary under different physiologic conditions, works, or in various environmental temperature. For example the need for calories is increased by the need to retain a constant body temperature in winter or in extreme cold condition, the caloric intake of the diet must therefore increase and this requirement is usually met by increasing the fat content of the diet.

What is the essential nutrient?
An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that either cannot be synthesized by the body at all, or cannot be synthesized in amounts adequate for good health and thus must be obtained from a dietary source.
Some categories of essential nutrients include essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and dietary minerals.
Essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by organism, and therefore must be supplied in the diet. Eight amino acids are generally regarded as essential for humans:
Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Additionally , cysteine [or sulphur-containing amino acids], tyrosine, histidine and arginine are required by infants and growing children.
The nonessential amino acids are: Alanine, asparagine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, tyrosine, arginine, histidine.

Essential fatty acids [EFAs] are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components by any known chemical pathways, and therefore must be obtained from the diet. The essential fatty acids start with the short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [SC-PUFA]. There are two families of EFAs: omega-3 [w-3, or n-3] and omega-6 [w-6, or n-6].
Omega-3 fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid or ALA [18:3].
Omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid or LA [18:2]
The other main components of fat which not essential are saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol. Cholesterol consists of high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] or good cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] or bad cholesterol.

The essential vitamins are: Vitamin A [retinol], B1 [Thiamine], B2 [Riboflavin], B3 [Niacin, vitamin P], B5 [Pantothenic acid], B6 [Pyridoxine], B7 [Biotin, vitamin H], B9 [Folate, folic acid, vitamin M],B12 [Cobalamin], Cholin [vitamin Bp], C[ascorbic acid], D [ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol], E [tocopherol] and K [naphthoquinoids].

The essential minerals are: Calcium [Ca], Chloride [Cl], Cobalt [Co], Copper [Cu], Iodine [I], Iron [Fe], magnesium [Mg], Manganese [Mn], Molybdenum [Mo], Nickel [Ni], Phosphorus [P], Potassium [K], Selenium [Se], Sodium [Na], Sulfur [S], and Zinc [Zn].
The body’s requirements vary widely. At one extreme a 70 kg human contains 1.0 kg of Calcium but only 3 mg of Cobalt.