Tuesday, August 25, 2009



What are the problems ?
1.What are the main and essential composition of nutrition on health?
2.What are the effects of nutrition on health promotion, prevention and treatment?
3.What kind and amount of foods that promote, prevent and treat or cure the diseases as health problems?

The answer for those problems as problem solving will be describe as follows :
1.What are the main and essential composition of nutrition on health?
Let us translate it into 3 sub-problems:
· What is the aim of nutrition?
· What are the main compositions of nutrition?
· What is the essential nutrient?

The aim of the science of nutrition is the determination of the kinds and amounts of foods that promote health and well-being. This includes not only the problems of under-nutrition but those of over-nutrition, taste, and availability. How ever, certain substances are essential constituents of any diet.

Essential human requirements usually not considered to be nutrients: oxygen, water and sunlight [for synthesis of vitamin D].
There are 6 main or major components of nutrition: protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and water.
The carbohydrate, fat and protein yield energy provide for growth, and maintain tissue subjected to wear and tear.

Vitamin, mineral and water although they do not yield energy, are essential parts of the chemical mechanism for the utilization of energy and for the synthesis of various necessary metabolites such as hormones and enzymes.
The minerals are also incorporated into the structure of the tissue and, in solution, play an important role in acid-base equilibrium.

The energy aspect of the nutrition or diet.
The energy for physiologic processes is provided by the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein. The daily requirement or daily caloric need is the sum of the basal metabolic rate, specific dynamic action, growth, exercise or work, and unused portion.
Distribution of the calories in the nutrition or diet:

In well balanced diet,
10-15 % of the total is usually derived from protein, 55-70 % from carbohydrate, and 20-30 % from fat. These proportion vary under different physiologic conditions, works, or in various environmental temperature. For example the need for calories is increased by the need to retain a constant body temperature in winter or in extreme cold condition, the caloric intake of the diet must therefore increase and this requirement is usually met by increasing the fat content of the diet.

What is the essential nutrient?
An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that either cannot be synthesized by the body at all, or cannot be synthesized in amounts adequate for good health and thus must be obtained from a dietary source.
Some categories of essential nutrients include essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and dietary minerals.
Essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by organism, and therefore must be supplied in the diet. Eight amino acids are generally regarded as essential for humans:
Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Additionally , cysteine [or sulphur-containing amino acids], tyrosine, histidine and arginine are required by infants and growing children.
The nonessential amino acids are: Alanine, asparagine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, tyrosine, arginine, histidine.

Essential fatty acids [EFAs] are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components by any known chemical pathways, and therefore must be obtained from the diet. The essential fatty acids start with the short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [SC-PUFA]. There are two families of EFAs: omega-3 [w-3, or n-3] and omega-6 [w-6, or n-6].
Omega-3 fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid or ALA [18:3].
Omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid or LA [18:2]
The other main components of fat which not essential are saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol. Cholesterol consists of high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] or good cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] or bad cholesterol.

The essential vitamins are: Vitamin A [retinol], B1 [Thiamine], B2 [Riboflavin], B3 [Niacin, vitamin P], B5 [Pantothenic acid], B6 [Pyridoxine], B7 [Biotin, vitamin H], B9 [Folate, folic acid, vitamin M],B12 [Cobalamin], Cholin [vitamin Bp], C[ascorbic acid], D [ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol], E [tocopherol] and K [naphthoquinoids].

The essential minerals are: Calcium [Ca], Chloride [Cl], Cobalt [Co], Copper [Cu], Iodine [I], Iron [Fe], magnesium [Mg], Manganese [Mn], Molybdenum [Mo], Nickel [Ni], Phosphorus [P], Potassium [K], Selenium [Se], Sodium [Na], Sulfur [S], and Zinc [Zn].
The body’s requirements vary widely. At one extreme a 70 kg human contains 1.0 kg of Calcium but only 3 mg of Cobalt.

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