Tuesday, September 1, 2009



The second problem solving.
What are the effect of nutrition on:

A clear understanding of the fundamentals of nutrition are basics due to the function, adequate requirement, effect of deficiency, effect of excess, and sources of the main component and essential nutrients.
What are the effect of nutrients on health promotion?
The answers are adequate requirement according to the function and sources of nutrients. The requirement of nutrient as long as life time from the embryo, baby, child, adult and aging.

What are the effect of nutrients on health prevention?
The information on the effect of deficiency, the effect of excess and adequate requirements are the basic answer to take action on health prevention.

What are the effect of nutrients on health treatment?
The effect of nutrients on health treatment is either alone for treatment of nutrient deficiency, or excess of nutrients as well as synergy with other medicine, surgical treatment, such as nutrient for infectious diseases for example diet for gastro-intestinal diseases, diet for typhoid diseases; diet for degenerative, diseases such as diet for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart diseases etc; and diet for preoperative and postoperative of surgical treatment per oral or parenteral.

The list of main type component of nutrients by function, effects of deficiency, effects of excess, requirements and sources of nutrients as follows:
1. Proteins:
Function :Supply amino acids for growth and repair of tissue cells; sols for osmotic equilibrium; ions in acid-base balance. With prosthetic groups to form hemoglobin, nucleoproteins, glycoprotein and lipoproteins. Enzymes, hormones, cellular respiratory substance, antibodies. Protective structures [nails and hair]. Source of energy.
Effects of deficiency: Lassitude, abdominal enlargement, edema; depletion of plasma proteins, negative nitrogen balance [no clinical syndrome due to lack of specific amino acid].
Effects of excess :Prolonged high protein intake not harmful. Requirements: Infancy 3 g/kg body weight [BW]…4-6 years 2, 5 g/kg BB…adult 1.0 g/kg BW.
Sources: Milk, eggs, fish, cheese, soy beans, peas, beans, cereals, nuts, lentils.

2. Carbohydrates.
Function: Readily available source of energy [body heat and muscular work], antiketogenic, structure of cells, antibodies, source of stored calories, conversion to fat, re-synthesis of amino acids, roughage.
Effects of deficiency: Ketosis [if protein intake less than 15 % of calories or in starvation]; underweight, if total calories are low.
Effects of excess: Overweight; galactosemia [if unable to metabolize galactose].
Requirements: To supply 25 to 55 % of calories. Sources: Milk, cereals, fruits, sucrose, syrups, starches, vegetables.
3. Fats:
Function: Concentrated reserve energy; physical protection for vessels, nerves, organs; insulation against changes in temperature; structure of body tissues, cell membranes and nuclei; vehicle for absorption of vitamins [A, D, E and K]; stimulates appetite; aids satiety [delays emptying time of stomach]; avoids necessity of ingestion of large bulk of foods; spares protein, vitamins A and B1;supplies essential fatty acids.
Effects of deficiency: Lack of satiety [craving for fat], underweight. Effects of excess: Overweight.
Requirements: Minimal not known, usually supplies 35 % of calories. Perhaps 2-3 % of calories as linoleic acid.
Sources: Milk, butter, egg yolk, lard, bacon, meat, fish, cheese, nuts, vegetable oils
4. Calories:
Function: Energy for basal metabolism [body temperature, muscle tonus, circulation, respiration, peristalsis, glandular function, vegetative function; specific dynamic action of food; growth and physical activity.
Effects of deficiency: Underweight, malnutrition.
Effects of excess: Overweight.
Requirements: Infancy 110 Calories per kg BW…4-6 years 90 Calories/kg BW…Adult 40 Calories/kg BW; varies with body surface [weight and height, and age].
Sources: 4 Calories/g carbohydrate; 4 Calories/g protein; 9 Calories/ g fat.
5. Water:
Function: Structure of cells; matrix for cellular changes; medium for ions; transport for nutrients and waste products; regulation of body temperature.
Effects of deficiency: Thirst, dryness of tongue, dehydration, high specific gravity of urine, loss of kidney function [acidosis, uremia, anuria, death].
Effects of excess: Abdominal discomfort, headache, cramps [water without salt], intoxication, convulsions, edema and circulatory failure.
Requirements: Infancy 150 ml/kg BW…4-6 years 100 ml/kg BW… Adult 50 ml/kg BW; related to calories consumed; greater in hot weather.
Sources: Water as such All foods.

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