LIST OF ESSENTIAL MINERALS BY FUNCTION... CONTINUED 4
Function: A mineral associated with antioxidant properties and fat metabolism. It is an antioxidant that works closely with vitamin E in actions like production of antibodies, binding of toxic metals like mercury, amino acid metabolism and promotion of normal body growth and fertility. Selenium protects the cell “machinery” that generates energy. It is also necessary for the production of prostaglandins, substances which affect blood pressure and platelet aggregation. It protects membranes, reduce risk of cancer, enhances immune system, protects against heart disease.
Effects of deficiency: It is associated with premature aging, heart attack, muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, infertility and increased risk of cancer.
Effects of excess: More than 750 micrograms; Diabetes, garlic breath odor, immune impairment, loss of hair and nails, irritability, skin lesions, tooth decay, nausea, weakness, yellowish skin.
Requirements: 0.07 mg [70 micrograms]/day.
Sources: Sea-foods and organ meats
Function: It is needed for the bone and connective tissues of the body such as tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, nails, skin and hair. It works with calcium to make strong bones so it is an important factor in osteoporosis and can help with faster mending of broken bones. It has been found helpful for preventing cardiovascular disease. It is probably best known as the “beauty mineral” for helping maintain strong, healthy nails, hair and skin.
Effects of deficiency: Silicon deficiency first shows as brittle or easily broken nails and dry, and can finally lead to structural abnormality of the long bones and the skull.
Effects of excess: No case have been reported.
Requirements: 2-5 mg/day
Sources: Unrefined grains of high fiber contents and cereal products.
Function: Tin is associated with iodine; tin supports the adrenals, and iodine supports the thyroid, with both subsequently affecting cardiac output: Tin + adrenals control the left side, and iodine + thyroid control the right side.
Positive health effects were numerous and included improvements with some forms of depression and fatigue, and a general increase in energy, well-being and mood. There were also benefits with certain types of headaches, insomnia, asthma, or improvements with digestion, skin, or various aches and pains.
Effects of deficiency: Fatigue, depression, low cardiac output [left], low adrenals, shortness of breath, asthma, headaches, insomnia. In animals, low tin results in poor growth, alopecia/bilateral hair loss, hearing loss and reduced feeding efficiency.
Effects of excess: Skin rash, stomach complaints, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, palpitations.
Requirements: Daily requirement intake [DRI] : none, suggested 10-20 mg daily. Therapeutic Range: 25-250 mg..
Sources: Tin / canned foods, cereal grains, dairy, meat, vegetables, seaweed, licorice, some toothpastes.
Function: Vanadium is required for glucose tolerance factor, for proper development of bones, cartilage and teeth and for cellular metabolism.
In human studies, daily insulin requirements in Type I diabetes decreased by as much as 14 % , and in Type II diabetics, there was an increase in insulin sensitivity observed following vanadium treatments using either vanadyl sulfate or sodium metavanadate. According to some sources, supplementing vanadium has the potential to improve athletic performance because of the anabolic effect of vanadyl sulfate being similar to insulin[supposedly resulting in higher liver and muscle glycogen stores], however the validity of that claim is not universally accepted.
Effects of deficiency: It may be linked to reproductive problems and kidney disease; supplementation with vanadium may assist with diabetes.
Effects of excess: It may include anything from various aches and pains and flu-like symptoms , to eventually it causing all kinds of bizarre, chemical imbalance. It can also cause a very noticeable green discoloration of the tongue.
Requirements: Recommended dietary allowance [RDA]: none.
Suggested 100 micrograms. Therapeutic Range : 1-100 mg.
Sources: Vegetable oils, fats, black pepper, seafood.
Function: Presence in enzymes, carbonic anhydrase and insulin substantiates its essentialness
Effects of deficiency: Unknown in human; rat show evidence of deficiency by impaired growth with definite changes in the skin and fur.
Effects of excess: Unknown from diet; zinc stearate powder: A severe irritation of the respiratory mucous membranes is produced by aspiration with resulting congestion, hyperemia, edema, and obstruction of bronchioles with mucous. Powder containing zinc stearate should never be used for infants and small children.
If intake 75 mg/day: Gastrointestinal irritation, vomiting, nausea, bleeding in stomach, abdominal pain fever and anemia; premature birth and stillbirth. May produce atherosclerosis.
Requirement: 12-20 mg daily.
Sources: Similar to iron: liver, red meat, egg yolk, legumes, whole grains and dark green vegetables; but more abundant in milk.