Thursday, October 1, 2009



Lithium [Li]
Li is biologically associated on a gastrointestinal and mental health level. Li is better known for its therapeutic properties with manic-depressive/bipolar disorder; Li in regard to potassium/sodium balance.
Effects of deficiency: Gastrointestinal disorders, low stomach acid [lower part of stomach], heartburn, bloating, bipolar/manic-depressive disorder.
Effects of excess: Nausea, vomiting, weight gain, staggering gait, hypothyroidism/goiter, tremors, liver disease, kidney disease, frequent urination, lethargy, diarrhea, slurring speech, edema, death.
Requirements: Estimated daily intake: 30-100 micrograms. Therapeutic range: 50 micro g – 1500 mg
Sources: Some mineral waters, seaweed, sugarcane.

Manganese [Mn]
Function: It is needed for bone development and maintenance of strong bones. It is also important in the utilization of thiamine, helps to activate enzymes that are necessary for the body’s proper use of vitamin B1, C and biotin. It is important in the formation of thyroxine, the principal hormone of the thyroid gland. Helps in the formation of substances that combat infection, for protein build up such as nucleic acid.
Effects of deficiency: Poor bone growth, slowed growth of hair and nails, diabetes, loss of weight, poor muscle coordination, ear noises, memory loss.
Effects of excess: Causes of excess is exposure and inhalation of ore dust. Poor appetite, apathy, depression, weakness, impotence, disturbed sleep, dementia, violence. Parkinsonism [muscular rigidity, tremor, monotone voice, “frozen” mask-like face] .
Requirements: 5 mg /day.
Sources: Green leafy vegetables, beans, whole grains [unpolished], nuts, coffee, tea, egg yolk.

A mineral involved in many enzyme processes, nerve function and protein metabolism. It plays an essential role in several enzymes including xanthine oxidase which is aids in mobilizing iron from liver reserves; aldehyde oxidase which is necessary for oxidation of fats and sulfite oxidase.
Effects of deficiency: Deficiencies can result from excess sulfites [common preservative of foods and drugs] or from refining of foods. Symptoms of deficiency include retarded weight gain, poor appetite, impaired reproduction fast heartbeat, increased rate of breathing, visual problems and shortened life expectancy.
Effects of excess: No case have been reported.
Requirements: Requirement daily intakes [RDI] 45 micro g/day
Sources: milk, beans, breads and cereals.

Nickel is trace mineral that may be thought of in connection to skin allergies or dermatitis from costume jewelry, eyeglass frames or dental material, however of the approximately 10 mg in the body, significant concentrations of nickel are found in RNA [Ribonucleic acid] and DNA [Deoxyribonucleic acid] where interacts with these nucleic acids. Most of plasma nickel is a constituent of the proteins nickeloplasmin and albumin, and it is also thought to be a factor in hormone, lipid and cell membrane metabolism. Insulin response is increased after ingesting nickel, which may be related to its activation of enzymes associated with the breakdown or utilization of glucose.
Effects of deficiency: Ni deficiency results in decreased growth, impaired liver function, changes in skin color and reproductive problems. Hyperglycemia [high blood sugar], depression, liver disease, anemia, low stomach acid, sinus congestion, fatigue, low adrenals.
Nickel and cobalt, both elements share left/right sided cell receptors and are considered essential to human health. Cobalt specifically affects the right coronary artery, resulting in vasodilatation with low level, and vasoconstriction with high levels, while nickel exerts the same effect on the left coronary artery.
The association of Nickel [Ni] to vitamin C deficiency symptoms, for instance, iron deficiency anemia is often found in the presence of low nickel, and it is a well-known fact that vitamin C assist in iron absorption. Both vitamin C and Ni can also be effective with cirrhosis of the liver, hypo-adrenalism, or to improve insulin production. Likewise, pernicious anemia can result from cobalt deficiency, for which vitamin B12 is a well-known treatment, being organically complex with cobalt.
Effects of excess: Ni excess or toxicity is usually not a problem unless several grams are ingested from non-dietary sources, or unless there is a natural tendency to retain too much Ni, which could lead to asthma, angina , skin rush, hypoglycemia [low blood sugar], shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, lowered pulse, increased red blood cells, heart failure [from 50 000-100 000 times the daily intake].However, Ni is quite toxic in its gaseous form of nickel carbonyl, and it has the potential to cause cancer of the sinuses, throat and lungs when insoluble Ni compounds are inhaled for long periods of time, which does not apply to soluble Ni compounds such as chloride, nitrate or sulfate.
Skin reactions such as itching, burning, redness or other rushes are the most symptoms with nickel sensitivity.
Requirements: Dietary Reference Intake [DRI]: 300-700 microgram
Therapeutic Range: 500 micro g-50 mg.
Sources: Unrefined whole grains, nuts, oysters, tea, herring, buckwheat seed, peas, beans, soybeans, lentils.

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