THE LIST OF ESSENTIAL MINERALS BY FUNCTION...[CONTINUED 2]
Bismuth [ Bi]
Function: Bismuth is biologically associated on a gastrointestinal and mental health level; bismuth in regard to zinc/phosphorus balance. Bismuth, through its antimicrobial action, is more appropriate for peptic involvement to inhibit helicobacter pylori activity, where it supports an increase in upper stomach acid levels. It is always low in that with an active infection of the helicobacter pylori bacterium, which is responsible for some gastric ulcers.
Effects of deficiency: Gastrointestinal disorders, low stomach acid [upper part of stomach], heartburn, bloating, calcification, warts, diarrhea, gastric ulcers.
Effects of excess: Mental confusion, memory problems, tremors, staggering gait, muscle twitching, slurring speech, joint problems, hearing and visual disturbances, hallucinations, coma.
Requirements: Estimated daily intake: 2-30 micrograms.
Therapeutic Range: 50 micrograms – 525 mg.
Sources: water, foods, cosmetics, stomach remedies.
Function: Boron plays a role in cell membrane functions that influence response to hormone action, trans-membrane signaling and trans-membrane movement of regulatory ions. Although the biochemical mechanism of boron is not yet known, it does increase steroid hormones such as the sex hormone and vitamin D. Boron also has a role as a metabolic regulator in several enzyme systems. It is involved in reactive oxygen species mechanisms as well as synthesis of RNA [Ribonucleic acid]. Boron indirectly influences calcium homeostasis, probably through vitamin D metabolism.
Effects of deficiency : Some signs of boron deficiency noted are depressed growth and reduction in steroid hormone concentrations.
Because boron plays a role in bone metabolism, it may be associated with an increased risk for bone loss. An inadequate intake of boron leads to increased excretion of calcium and magnesium, and lower serum concentrations of estrogen and testosterone .
Effects of excess: There have been no reports of adverse reactions in adults taking up to 18 mg of boron daily over prolonged periods. No adverse effects have been observed in pre-menopausal or post-menopausal women using boron supplements.
Requirements: Dietary reference intake: 20 mg/day.
Sources: Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of boron. Other sources are legumes, pulses and nuts
Function: A mineral important in regulating blood glucose. Although chromium works with insulin to help your body use blood sugar, preliminary studies assessing the effect of chromium in the treatment of diabetes are controversial, and there is no proof chromium can prevent the disease. There’s also no proof of popular claims that taking chromium supplements can increase your muscle mass, help you lose weight, reduce cholesterol and prevent osteoporosis.
Effects of deficiency: Hyperactivity, immune system weakness, low blood sugar [hypoglycemia]
Effects of excess: More than 50 mg/day; dermatitis, intestinal ulcers, kidney and liver impairment.
Requirements: 0.2 mg/day
Sources: Brewer’s yeast, whole grains and meats
Function: It is required in the production of red blood cells and preventing anemia. Since cobalt is part of the vitamin B12 molecule, the function of cobalt is interwoven with that of vitamin B12.
Effects of deficiency: Pernicious anemia, weakness, fatigue, anorexia and diarrhea.
Effects of excess: Tolerable upper limit 1-2 micrograms; toxic level more than 30 micrograms with symptoms nausea, vomiting diarrhea, skin rushes, hot flushes. It may damage the heart muscle, over production of red blood cells and may damage the thyroid gland. High dose of cobalt interfere with iodine uptake and therefore result in goiter and hypothyroidism.
Requirements: Recommended daily intake [RDI] 0.12 micro gram.
Sources: Liver, red meat, fish, milk, nuts , oysters and leafy green vegetables.
Function: The organo-germanium form, bis-carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide [Ge-132], developed by Kazuhiko Asaia of Japan in 1967, is a safe and effective compound that can be used for a variety of medical problems ranging form viral infections to cancer, which require improved oxygenation and immune support.Ge-132 is further known to enhance the immune system by stimulating the production of natural killer cells, interferon, macrophages and T-suppressor cells.
Effects of deficiency: Cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, higher risk for several cancers, osteoporosis, arthritis, weakened immune system, decreased oxygen.
Effects of excess: Bruising, kidney damage, liver damage, skin rush, neuron-toxicity.
Requirements: Estimated daily intake of germanium: 1-2 mg.
Sources: Ginseng, garlic, aloe vera, sushi, watercress, shitake mushroom.