ESSENTIAL MINERALS BY FUNCTION,EFFECTS OF DEFICIENCY, EXCESS,REQUIREMENTS AND SOURCES. [Continued]
Function: As a constituent of certain amino acids: in keratin, pigment of epidermal tissues [melanin], bile-acids, mucous secretions and vitreous humor, connective tissue, enzymes, heparin and glutathione; with sugars to form glycol-proteins and with lipids in nervous system.
Effects of deficiency: It may be connected to unstable blood sugar, because sulfur is a part of the insulin molecule.On the physical sign,there may be lowering the heartbeat and power,frequent urination,anemia and irregular menses. Sulfur deficiency imbalanced emotion include excess pride and sensitivity,craving the chocolate,sweets and beer.
Effects of excess: Urinary acidity due to sulfates ; signs of sulfur excess include irritability of nervous system,changeability,depression and slowness in the morning.Excess sulfur,particularly through hydrogen sulfide from eating too many sulfur foods can result in auto-toxity, high sulfur diet such as kale,cabbage,cauliflower,horseradish,Brussel sprouts and water cress. These foods can treat the deficiency of sulfur.
Requirements: Intake of 0.5 to 1 g per day.
Sources: High sulfur diet: kale,cabbage,cauliflower,horseradish,Brussel sprouts, watercress, artichokes,asparagus, avocado,broccoli, carrots, corn, durian,figs,garlic.
Function: Acid-base equilibrium, osmotic equilibrium, regulate body fluid volume; balanced intertwined with that of sodium.
Effects of deficiency: Deficiency occurs in severe diarrhea, vomiting or excessive sweating. Administration of infuse fluids glucose without saline may produce deficiency, particularly in treatment of burns
Effects of excess: Excessive infuse administration of sodium chloride may lead to edema formation. Not likely under ordinary dietary condition.
Requirements: 2-3 g daily. Greater in pathologic conditions associated with dehydration, acidosis.
Sources: Foods, table salt.
Function: Structure of hemoglobin , the component of blood which carries oxygen to every cell in the body; myoglobin [muscle globin protein], which supplies oxygen to muscle cells ; a number of enzymes and other iron containing compounds, related to oxidation mechanism.
Effects of deficiency: Anemia [iron deficiency type]: hypochromic [decreased iron content], microcytic [smaller cells than normal cells].
Effects of excess: None from dietary excess. Poisoning by medicinal iron: iron salts [ferrous sulfate] as few as 10 to 15 ferrous sulfate candy coated tablets [5 grains=300 mg]. Symptoms may occur 30 t0 60 minutes after ingestion: acute gastroenteritis, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, collapse, and coma ending in death may occur. A severe acidosis may also be present.
Intake 25 mg/day: Intestinal upset, loss of appetite, interferes with zinc and copper absorption. Toxic build-up in liver, pancreas and heart.
Requirements: Intake recommended from 6 mg daily for infants, 4-6 years 10 mg and to 16 mg for adolescents.
Sources: Meat, eggs, liver, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, legumes, beans, peas.
Function: Manufacture of thyroxine, which is essential for regulation of energy metabolism which regulates the body’s production of energy and metabolic rate, and is involved in the conversion carotene to vitamin A, in protein synthesis and in synthesis of cholesterol, which is the building block for hormones. .
Effects of deficiency: Simple goiter [enlarged thyroid] and hypothyroidism [which in turn leads to the weight gain, dry skin and hair, sensitivity to cold, sluggish metabolism, slowed mental reactions and hardening of the arteries]; and endemic cretinism.
Effects of excess: Non-clinical-significance in man from dietary foods.
More than 2 mg/day: Thyroid impairment, iodine poisoning or sensitivity reaction. The toxic effects of iodine are due largely to its corrosive action on gastrointestinal tract. Ingestion is followed by reflex vomiting, burning abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Shock may result from fluid loss, and death may occur in one to forty-eight hours.
Requirements: Children, 40-100 micrograms daily; adults, 100-200 micrograms daily.
Sources: Iodized salt.
Function: Related to hardness of bone and teeth, the mayor tissues known to incorporate fluoride are bones and tooth enamel; fluorine appears to increase deposition of calcium, thereby strengthening teeth and bones; possible suppression of bacterial action, especially Bacillus acidophilus in saliva.
Effects of deficiency: Tendency to dental caries.
Effects of excess: Fluoride chronic 5 mg/day: Mottling of teeth, fluorosis [white patches on teeth]; bone abnormalities. Fluoride acute 500 mg/day, poisons several enzymes; 5 000 mg lethal excess.
Requirements: 1.5-4 mg; In drinking water, 0.7 part per million is sufficiently high to prevent dental caries, but low enough to avoid mottling.
Sources: Additional of fluorides salts to communal water.
Function: Catalyst in hemoglobin formation, certain oxidation-reduction enzymes in tissues.
Effects of deficiency: Occasionally hypochromic anemia.
Effects of excess: 15 mg/daily. Fatigue; poor memory; depression; insomnia; increased production of free radicals; may suppress immune function. Violent vomiting and diarrhea. Cooking acid foods in unlined copper pots lead to toxic accumulation of copper. Dietary foods not harmful.
Requirements: For infant and children the diet should contain about 0.1 mg of copper per kg body weight; adults, 2mg daily.
Sources: Drinking water, mixed diet.
ESSNTIAL MINERALS BY FUNTION...[CONTINUED]