Wednesday, September 16, 2009



The list of the essential minerals or inorganic elements by function, effects of deficiency, effects of excess, requirements and sources as follows:

: Structure of bone and teeth, muscle contraction, nerve cell irritability, coagulation of blood, cardiac action, production of milk.
Effects of deficiency: osteoporosis and osteomalacia [Grossly, it is due to inadequate concentrations of calcium or phosphorus in the body fluids; characterized by a softening of the bones, with the result that incomplete fractures and bending occur much more frequently than do complete fractures], rickets [related to phosphorus loss], tetany [it is a syndrome whose principal manifestations result from a state of increased neuromuscular irritability].
Effects of Excess: More than 2 000 mg/day. Drowsiness; impaired absorption of iron, zinc, and manganese; calcium deposits in tissues throughout body; mimicking cancer on X-ray .Dietary excess not harmful.
Requirements: Related to phosphorus ratio and vitamin D intake and sunshine. Roughly 1.0 g/day
Sources: Milk, milk products, eggs, leafy vegetables, tofu, almonds and broccoli.

Structure of bone, ionic balance [intracellular], enzyme metabolism, regulation of nerve impulses and muscular action.
Effects of deficiency: Deficiencies have been associated with coronary heart disease, formation of clots in the heart and brain, calcium deposits kidney, blood vessels and heart, depression. Low plasma magnesium tetany in rats, dogs, cattle and possibly in human being.
Effects of excess : Diarrhea at large dosages of poorly absorbed forms [like Epsom salts].Disturbed nervous system because the calcium-to-magnesium ratio is unbalanced;catharsis,hazard to persons with poor kidney function.
Requirements: Average consumption 200-400 mg daily.
Sources: Green vegetables, milk, meat, nuts, legumes, whole grains.

Function: Structural protoplasm; regulation of nervous and muscular activity; intracellular action in acid-base equilibrium. In the correct ratio, sodium and potassium help regulate water balance within the body; are essential for the transport of nutrients into each cell and waste products out of each cell and help normalize the heartbeat.
Effects of deficiency: Deficiency only under abnormal conditions, e.g., diarrhea, burns, shock, alkalosis, abdominal distention, weakness, paralysis, cardiac irregularities. Deficiency of potassium may lead to nervous disorders, insomnia, constipation, slow irregular heartbeat and muscle damage. In severe potassium deficiency, muscle weakness and paralysis may develop, leading to difficulties in breathing and changes in the heart.
Effects of excess: High dose: Mental impairment, weakness. Excessive potassium in blood causing muscular paralysis and abnormal heart beat, or heart block
Requirements: 1 to 2 g daily.
Sources: Natural foods, as vegetables, fruits, meat, milk.

: Ionic equilibrium, osmotic pressure, regulate body fluid volume It works with potassium to equalize acid-alkaline balance of the blood and water balance in the body and well as transport of nutrients into and waste products out of body cells, muscle contraction and nerve stimulation [irritability of neuromuscular system], small amount in muscle and cartilage cells. It is necessary for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach for digestion of protein and minerals and helps in the elimination of carbon dioxide from the body.
Effects of deficiency: Dehydration, loss of renal function; muscular cramps
with excessive sweating. Excessive fatigue, muscle cramps and weakness, intestinal gas, arthritis and mental confusion can result from sodium deficiency.
Effects of excess: Edema, if excessive administration of parenteral [infuse] fluids, particularly in premature and small infants with immature renal function.
Requirements: Estimates for daily intake as sodium chloride by infuse routes: infants=1 g; children=3 g; adolescents and adults=6 g.
Sources: foods, table salt; intake 1.1-3.3 g daily.

: Structure of bone, it is essential component of bone mineral and needs to be in correct balance with calcium for both of these minerals to be used effectively in the body; muscle and nerve tissue; absorption of carbohydrates; intermediary mechanisms of muscle activity; absorption of fat; buffer in acid-base equilibrium.
Effects of deficiency: Phosphorus deficiency results in bone loss and is characterized by weakness, anorexia, malaise, and pain. Deficiency in the calcium-phosphorus balance and related with vitamin D may result in conditions such as rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, arthritis, pyorrhea and tooth decay..
Effects of excess: No harmful effects known with adequate renal function and dietary foods..
Red phosphorus is non-absorbable and therefore nonpoisonous. Yellow phosphorus is highly poisonous, producing severe tissue destruction. Yellow or white phosphorus is used in rodent and insect poisons, in fireworks and in the manufacture of fertilizer. Zinc phosphide used in rat poisons releases phosphine on contact with water.
Symptoms of acute poisoning occur within one to two hours. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and a garlic odor of the breath and excreta my be noted. Coma may occur within 24 to 48 hours. If recovery from the acute phase occurs, symptoms may return in one to two days with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, large tender liver, jaundice, shock, oliguria [urine suppression, secreted in a small amount] and multiple hemorrhages. Phosphorus causes second- to third-degree burns on contact with the skin.
High dose: Distortion of calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, creating relative deficiency of calcium.
Requirements: Daily intake of 1.5 g recommended for Calcium: Phosphorus ratio of 1: 1.5.
Sources: Milk, milk products, meat, fish, dairy products, beans, cereal grains

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