Saturday, September 26, 2009



Bismuth [ Bi]
: Bismuth is biologically associated on a gastrointestinal and mental health level; bismuth in regard to zinc/phosphorus balance. Bismuth, through its antimicrobial action, is more appropriate for peptic involvement to inhibit helicobacter pylori activity, where it supports an increase in upper stomach acid levels. It is always low in that with an active infection of the helicobacter pylori bacterium, which is responsible for some gastric ulcers.
Effects of deficiency: Gastrointestinal disorders, low stomach acid [upper part of stomach], heartburn, bloating, calcification, warts, diarrhea, gastric ulcers.
Effects of excess: Mental confusion, memory problems, tremors, staggering gait, muscle twitching, slurring speech, joint problems, hearing and visual disturbances, hallucinations, coma.
Requirements: Estimated daily intake: 2-30 micrograms.
Therapeutic Range: 50 micrograms – 525 mg.
Sources: water, foods, cosmetics, stomach remedies.

Boron [B]
: Boron plays a role in cell membrane functions that influence response to hormone action, trans-membrane signaling and trans-membrane movement of regulatory ions. Although the biochemical mechanism of boron is not yet known, it does increase steroid hormones such as the sex hormone and vitamin D. Boron also has a role as a metabolic regulator in several enzyme systems. It is involved in reactive oxygen species mechanisms as well as synthesis of RNA [Ribonucleic acid]. Boron indirectly influences calcium homeostasis, probably through vitamin D metabolism.
Effects of deficiency : Some signs of boron deficiency noted are depressed growth and reduction in steroid hormone concentrations.
Because boron plays a role in bone metabolism, it may be associated with an increased risk for bone loss. An inadequate intake of boron leads to increased excretion of calcium and magnesium, and lower serum concentrations of estrogen and testosterone .
Effects of excess: There have been no reports of adverse reactions in adults taking up to 18 mg of boron daily over prolonged periods. No adverse effects have been observed in pre-menopausal or post-menopausal women using boron supplements.
Requirements: Dietary reference intake: 20 mg/day.
Sources: Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of boron. Other sources are legumes, pulses and nuts

Chromium [Cr]
A mineral important in regulating blood glucose. Although chromium works with insulin to help your body use blood sugar, preliminary studies assessing the effect of chromium in the treatment of diabetes are controversial, and there is no proof chromium can prevent the disease. There’s also no proof of popular claims that taking chromium supplements can increase your muscle mass, help you lose weight, reduce cholesterol and prevent osteoporosis.
Effects of deficiency: Hyperactivity, immune system weakness, low blood sugar [hypoglycemia]
Effects of excess: More than 50 mg/day; dermatitis, intestinal ulcers, kidney and liver impairment.
Requirements: 0.2 mg/day
Sources: Brewer’s yeast, whole grains and meats

Cobalt [Co]
It is required in the production of red blood cells and preventing anemia. Since cobalt is part of the vitamin B12 molecule, the function of cobalt is interwoven with that of vitamin B12.
Effects of deficiency: Pernicious anemia, weakness, fatigue, anorexia and diarrhea.
Effects of excess: Tolerable upper limit 1-2 micrograms; toxic level more than 30 micrograms with symptoms nausea, vomiting diarrhea, skin rushes, hot flushes. It may damage the heart muscle, over production of red blood cells and may damage the thyroid gland. High dose of cobalt interfere with iodine uptake and therefore result in goiter and hypothyroidism.
Requirements: Recommended daily intake [RDI] 0.12 micro gram.
Sources: Liver, red meat, fish, milk, nuts , oysters and leafy green vegetables.

Germanium [Ge]
: The organo-germanium form, bis-carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide [Ge-132], developed by Kazuhiko Asaia of Japan in 1967, is a safe and effective compound that can be used for a variety of medical problems ranging form viral infections to cancer, which require improved oxygenation and immune support.Ge-132 is further known to enhance the immune system by stimulating the production of natural killer cells, interferon, macrophages and T-suppressor cells.
Effects of deficiency: Cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, higher risk for several cancers, osteoporosis, arthritis, weakened immune system, decreased oxygen.
Effects of excess: Bruising, kidney damage, liver damage, skin rush, neuron-toxicity.
Requirements: Estimated daily intake of germanium: 1-2 mg.
Sources: Ginseng, garlic, aloe vera, sushi, watercress, shitake mushroom.

Sunday, September 20, 2009



Function: As a constituent of certain amino acids: in keratin, pigment of epidermal tissues [melanin], bile-acids, mucous secretions and vitreous humor, connective tissue, enzymes, heparin and glutathione; with sugars to form glycol-proteins and with lipids in nervous system.
Effects of deficiency: It may be connected to unstable blood sugar, because sulfur is a part of the insulin molecule.On the physical sign,there may be lowering the heartbeat and power,frequent urination,anemia and irregular menses. Sulfur deficiency imbalanced emotion include excess pride and sensitivity,craving the chocolate,sweets and beer.
Effects of excess: Urinary acidity due to sulfates ; signs of sulfur excess include irritability of nervous system,changeability,depression and slowness in the morning.Excess sulfur,particularly through hydrogen sulfide from eating too many sulfur foods can result in auto-toxity, high sulfur diet such as kale,cabbage,cauliflower,horseradish,Brussel sprouts and water cress. These foods can treat the deficiency of sulfur.
Requirements: Intake of 0.5 to 1 g per day.
Sources: High sulfur diet: kale,cabbage,cauliflower,horseradish,Brussel sprouts, watercress, artichokes,asparagus, avocado,broccoli, carrots, corn, durian,figs,garlic.

: Acid-base equilibrium, osmotic equilibrium, regulate body fluid volume; balanced intertwined with that of sodium.
Effects of deficiency: Deficiency occurs in severe diarrhea, vomiting or excessive sweating. Administration of infuse fluids glucose without saline may produce deficiency, particularly in treatment of burns
Effects of excess: Excessive infuse administration of sodium chloride may lead to edema formation. Not likely under ordinary dietary condition.
Requirements: 2-3 g daily. Greater in pathologic conditions associated with dehydration, acidosis.
Sources: Foods, table salt.

: Structure of hemoglobin , the component of blood which carries oxygen to every cell in the body; myoglobin [muscle globin protein], which supplies oxygen to muscle cells ; a number of enzymes and other iron containing compounds, related to oxidation mechanism.
Effects of deficiency: Anemia [iron deficiency type]: hypochromic [decreased iron content], microcytic [smaller cells than normal cells].
Effects of excess: None from dietary excess. Poisoning by medicinal iron: iron salts [ferrous sulfate] as few as 10 to 15 ferrous sulfate candy coated tablets [5 grains=300 mg]. Symptoms may occur 30 t0 60 minutes after ingestion: acute gastroenteritis, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, collapse, and coma ending in death may occur. A severe acidosis may also be present.
Intake 25 mg/day: Intestinal upset, loss of appetite, interferes with zinc and copper absorption. Toxic build-up in liver, pancreas and heart.
Requirements: Intake recommended from 6 mg daily for infants, 4-6 years 10 mg and to 16 mg for adolescents.
Sources: Meat, eggs, liver, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, legumes, beans, peas.

: Manufacture of thyroxine, which is essential for regulation of energy metabolism which regulates the body’s production of energy and metabolic rate, and is involved in the conversion carotene to vitamin A, in protein synthesis and in synthesis of cholesterol, which is the building block for hormones. .
Effects of deficiency: Simple goiter [enlarged thyroid] and hypothyroidism [which in turn leads to the weight gain, dry skin and hair, sensitivity to cold, sluggish metabolism, slowed mental reactions and hardening of the arteries]; and endemic cretinism.
Effects of excess: Non-clinical-significance in man from dietary foods.
More than 2 mg/day: Thyroid impairment, iodine poisoning or sensitivity reaction. The toxic effects of iodine are due largely to its corrosive action on gastrointestinal tract. Ingestion is followed by reflex vomiting, burning abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Shock may result from fluid loss, and death may occur in one to forty-eight hours.
Requirements: Children, 40-100 micrograms daily; adults, 100-200 micrograms daily.
Sources: Iodized salt.

Related to hardness of bone and teeth, the mayor tissues known to incorporate fluoride are bones and tooth enamel; fluorine appears to increase deposition of calcium, thereby strengthening teeth and bones; possible suppression of bacterial action, especially Bacillus acidophilus in saliva.
Effects of deficiency: Tendency to dental caries.
Effects of excess: Fluoride chronic 5 mg/day: Mottling of teeth, fluorosis [white patches on teeth]; bone abnormalities. Fluoride acute 500 mg/day, poisons several enzymes; 5 000 mg lethal excess.
Requirements: 1.5-4 mg; In drinking water, 0.7 part per million is sufficiently high to prevent dental caries, but low enough to avoid mottling.
Sources: Additional of fluorides salts to communal water.

: Catalyst in hemoglobin formation, certain oxidation-reduction enzymes in tissues.
Effects of deficiency: Occasionally hypochromic anemia.
Effects of excess: 15 mg/daily. Fatigue; poor memory; depression; insomnia; increased production of free radicals; may suppress immune function. Violent vomiting and diarrhea. Cooking acid foods in unlined copper pots lead to toxic accumulation of copper. Dietary foods not harmful.
Requirements: For infant and children the diet should contain about 0.1 mg of copper per kg body weight; adults, 2mg daily.
Sources: Drinking water, mixed diet.


Wednesday, September 16, 2009



The list of the essential minerals or inorganic elements by function, effects of deficiency, effects of excess, requirements and sources as follows:

: Structure of bone and teeth, muscle contraction, nerve cell irritability, coagulation of blood, cardiac action, production of milk.
Effects of deficiency: osteoporosis and osteomalacia [Grossly, it is due to inadequate concentrations of calcium or phosphorus in the body fluids; characterized by a softening of the bones, with the result that incomplete fractures and bending occur much more frequently than do complete fractures], rickets [related to phosphorus loss], tetany [it is a syndrome whose principal manifestations result from a state of increased neuromuscular irritability].
Effects of Excess: More than 2 000 mg/day. Drowsiness; impaired absorption of iron, zinc, and manganese; calcium deposits in tissues throughout body; mimicking cancer on X-ray .Dietary excess not harmful.
Requirements: Related to phosphorus ratio and vitamin D intake and sunshine. Roughly 1.0 g/day
Sources: Milk, milk products, eggs, leafy vegetables, tofu, almonds and broccoli.

Structure of bone, ionic balance [intracellular], enzyme metabolism, regulation of nerve impulses and muscular action.
Effects of deficiency: Deficiencies have been associated with coronary heart disease, formation of clots in the heart and brain, calcium deposits kidney, blood vessels and heart, depression. Low plasma magnesium tetany in rats, dogs, cattle and possibly in human being.
Effects of excess : Diarrhea at large dosages of poorly absorbed forms [like Epsom salts].Disturbed nervous system because the calcium-to-magnesium ratio is unbalanced;catharsis,hazard to persons with poor kidney function.
Requirements: Average consumption 200-400 mg daily.
Sources: Green vegetables, milk, meat, nuts, legumes, whole grains.

Function: Structural protoplasm; regulation of nervous and muscular activity; intracellular action in acid-base equilibrium. In the correct ratio, sodium and potassium help regulate water balance within the body; are essential for the transport of nutrients into each cell and waste products out of each cell and help normalize the heartbeat.
Effects of deficiency: Deficiency only under abnormal conditions, e.g., diarrhea, burns, shock, alkalosis, abdominal distention, weakness, paralysis, cardiac irregularities. Deficiency of potassium may lead to nervous disorders, insomnia, constipation, slow irregular heartbeat and muscle damage. In severe potassium deficiency, muscle weakness and paralysis may develop, leading to difficulties in breathing and changes in the heart.
Effects of excess: High dose: Mental impairment, weakness. Excessive potassium in blood causing muscular paralysis and abnormal heart beat, or heart block
Requirements: 1 to 2 g daily.
Sources: Natural foods, as vegetables, fruits, meat, milk.

: Ionic equilibrium, osmotic pressure, regulate body fluid volume It works with potassium to equalize acid-alkaline balance of the blood and water balance in the body and well as transport of nutrients into and waste products out of body cells, muscle contraction and nerve stimulation [irritability of neuromuscular system], small amount in muscle and cartilage cells. It is necessary for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach for digestion of protein and minerals and helps in the elimination of carbon dioxide from the body.
Effects of deficiency: Dehydration, loss of renal function; muscular cramps
with excessive sweating. Excessive fatigue, muscle cramps and weakness, intestinal gas, arthritis and mental confusion can result from sodium deficiency.
Effects of excess: Edema, if excessive administration of parenteral [infuse] fluids, particularly in premature and small infants with immature renal function.
Requirements: Estimates for daily intake as sodium chloride by infuse routes: infants=1 g; children=3 g; adolescents and adults=6 g.
Sources: foods, table salt; intake 1.1-3.3 g daily.

: Structure of bone, it is essential component of bone mineral and needs to be in correct balance with calcium for both of these minerals to be used effectively in the body; muscle and nerve tissue; absorption of carbohydrates; intermediary mechanisms of muscle activity; absorption of fat; buffer in acid-base equilibrium.
Effects of deficiency: Phosphorus deficiency results in bone loss and is characterized by weakness, anorexia, malaise, and pain. Deficiency in the calcium-phosphorus balance and related with vitamin D may result in conditions such as rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, arthritis, pyorrhea and tooth decay..
Effects of excess: No harmful effects known with adequate renal function and dietary foods..
Red phosphorus is non-absorbable and therefore nonpoisonous. Yellow phosphorus is highly poisonous, producing severe tissue destruction. Yellow or white phosphorus is used in rodent and insect poisons, in fireworks and in the manufacture of fertilizer. Zinc phosphide used in rat poisons releases phosphine on contact with water.
Symptoms of acute poisoning occur within one to two hours. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and a garlic odor of the breath and excreta my be noted. Coma may occur within 24 to 48 hours. If recovery from the acute phase occurs, symptoms may return in one to two days with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, large tender liver, jaundice, shock, oliguria [urine suppression, secreted in a small amount] and multiple hemorrhages. Phosphorus causes second- to third-degree burns on contact with the skin.
High dose: Distortion of calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, creating relative deficiency of calcium.
Requirements: Daily intake of 1.5 g recommended for Calcium: Phosphorus ratio of 1: 1.5.
Sources: Milk, milk products, meat, fish, dairy products, beans, cereal grains

Friday, September 11, 2009



Composition of the human body and approximate relative amounts in the body are as follows:

Table: Composition of Human Body
Elements…...%..........AA, g
Oxygen….....65.0...45, 500.00
Carbon….....18.0... 12, 600.00
Hydrogen....10.0.....7, 000.00
Nitrogen…....3.0..... 2, 100.00
Calcium…......1.5..... 1, 050.00
Phosphorus...1.0........ 700.00
Potassium.... 0.35...... 245.00
Sulfur……..... 0.25 ......175.0000
Sodium…...... 0.15...... 105.00
Chlorine… .....0.15 ......105.00
Magnesium... 0.05....... 35.00
Iron……… ......0.004........3.00
Manganese.... 0.0003 .....0.20
Copper…........0.0002..... 0.10
Iodine……...... 0.00004... 0.03
Footnote: AA, g=Approximate Amount in a 70-Kg.Man, g=grams

Various other elements are also present in traces; these are sometimes called as a group the trace elements such as cobalt, selenium, aluminum, fluorine, lithium, bromine, arsenic lead, molybdenum, vanadium.
The oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen usually named organic elements consist of 96 % of body weight, and other elements is about 4 % consist of calcium, carbon…iodine and trace elements named inorganic elements or minerals.
The minerals are essential because minerals cannot be made in the body and must be obtained in our diet. The daily requirements of minerals required by the body can be obtained from a well balanced diet.
About 90 per cent of the total oxygen of the animal and human body, and about 70 per cent of the total hydrogen are present together in the form of water, which makes up roughly two thirds of the total body weight.

The minerals or the ash content of the adult body is about 4 % of body weight, 83 % of which is in the skeleton and 10 % in the muscle.
The important electro-positive elements are potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium; the electro-negative, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine; the important inorganic complexes iron and iodine.
Next subtopic: List of Essential Minerals by Function...

Tuesday, September 1, 2009



The second problem solving.
What are the effect of nutrition on:

A clear understanding of the fundamentals of nutrition are basics due to the function, adequate requirement, effect of deficiency, effect of excess, and sources of the main component and essential nutrients.
What are the effect of nutrients on health promotion?
The answers are adequate requirement according to the function and sources of nutrients. The requirement of nutrient as long as life time from the embryo, baby, child, adult and aging.

What are the effect of nutrients on health prevention?
The information on the effect of deficiency, the effect of excess and adequate requirements are the basic answer to take action on health prevention.

What are the effect of nutrients on health treatment?
The effect of nutrients on health treatment is either alone for treatment of nutrient deficiency, or excess of nutrients as well as synergy with other medicine, surgical treatment, such as nutrient for infectious diseases for example diet for gastro-intestinal diseases, diet for typhoid diseases; diet for degenerative, diseases such as diet for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart diseases etc; and diet for preoperative and postoperative of surgical treatment per oral or parenteral.

The list of main type component of nutrients by function, effects of deficiency, effects of excess, requirements and sources of nutrients as follows:
1. Proteins:
Function :Supply amino acids for growth and repair of tissue cells; sols for osmotic equilibrium; ions in acid-base balance. With prosthetic groups to form hemoglobin, nucleoproteins, glycoprotein and lipoproteins. Enzymes, hormones, cellular respiratory substance, antibodies. Protective structures [nails and hair]. Source of energy.
Effects of deficiency: Lassitude, abdominal enlargement, edema; depletion of plasma proteins, negative nitrogen balance [no clinical syndrome due to lack of specific amino acid].
Effects of excess :Prolonged high protein intake not harmful. Requirements: Infancy 3 g/kg body weight [BW]…4-6 years 2, 5 g/kg BB…adult 1.0 g/kg BW.
Sources: Milk, eggs, fish, cheese, soy beans, peas, beans, cereals, nuts, lentils.

2. Carbohydrates.
Function: Readily available source of energy [body heat and muscular work], antiketogenic, structure of cells, antibodies, source of stored calories, conversion to fat, re-synthesis of amino acids, roughage.
Effects of deficiency: Ketosis [if protein intake less than 15 % of calories or in starvation]; underweight, if total calories are low.
Effects of excess: Overweight; galactosemia [if unable to metabolize galactose].
Requirements: To supply 25 to 55 % of calories. Sources: Milk, cereals, fruits, sucrose, syrups, starches, vegetables.
3. Fats:
Function: Concentrated reserve energy; physical protection for vessels, nerves, organs; insulation against changes in temperature; structure of body tissues, cell membranes and nuclei; vehicle for absorption of vitamins [A, D, E and K]; stimulates appetite; aids satiety [delays emptying time of stomach]; avoids necessity of ingestion of large bulk of foods; spares protein, vitamins A and B1;supplies essential fatty acids.
Effects of deficiency: Lack of satiety [craving for fat], underweight. Effects of excess: Overweight.
Requirements: Minimal not known, usually supplies 35 % of calories. Perhaps 2-3 % of calories as linoleic acid.
Sources: Milk, butter, egg yolk, lard, bacon, meat, fish, cheese, nuts, vegetable oils
4. Calories:
Function: Energy for basal metabolism [body temperature, muscle tonus, circulation, respiration, peristalsis, glandular function, vegetative function; specific dynamic action of food; growth and physical activity.
Effects of deficiency: Underweight, malnutrition.
Effects of excess: Overweight.
Requirements: Infancy 110 Calories per kg BW…4-6 years 90 Calories/kg BW…Adult 40 Calories/kg BW; varies with body surface [weight and height, and age].
Sources: 4 Calories/g carbohydrate; 4 Calories/g protein; 9 Calories/ g fat.
5. Water:
Function: Structure of cells; matrix for cellular changes; medium for ions; transport for nutrients and waste products; regulation of body temperature.
Effects of deficiency: Thirst, dryness of tongue, dehydration, high specific gravity of urine, loss of kidney function [acidosis, uremia, anuria, death].
Effects of excess: Abdominal discomfort, headache, cramps [water without salt], intoxication, convulsions, edema and circulatory failure.
Requirements: Infancy 150 ml/kg BW…4-6 years 100 ml/kg BW… Adult 50 ml/kg BW; related to calories consumed; greater in hot weather.
Sources: Water as such All foods.